Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL Number 9. July 2023 Pp.147-160
Online Learning is a City without Police: Influence of Proficiency on Libyan EFL Learners’
Language Academy, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mohammed Abulqasem Mohammed Elasfar
Language Academy, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Department of English Language, Faculty of Languages,
Sebha University, Libya
Received: 02/14/2023 Accepted: 05/04/2023 Published:07/24/2023
With the spread of COVID-19 and the replacement of face-to-face classes with emergency online learning, many studies have investigated English as a Foreign Language learners’ perceptions regarding their experiences of emergency online learning. However, the influence of EFL learners’ proficiency levels on their perceptions is still a neglected area. Conducting in-depth interviews with a group of Libyan EFL learners (n=18) by employing the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique, this study investigated their metaphorical perceptions regarding emergency online learning across the three proficiency levels of Basic, Independent, and Proficient Users according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Considering the large number of EFL learners around the world and the felt literature gap, this study investigated the relationship between EFL learners’ proficiency levels and perceptions. The three main features of online learning reflected in the participants’ metaphors were (i) lack of the teacher’s physical presence, (ii) lack of peers’ physical presence and (iii) lack of nonverbal communication cues. Furthermore, this study reveals a significant relationship between the learners’ language proficiency levels and perceptions. For instance, Basic Users perceived the lack of a teacher’s presence by metaphors of ‘unsafety’ and ‘fear’, while Independent and Proficient Users respectively perceived it by metaphors of ‘freedom’ and ‘power’. Accordingly, the learners reported different class behaviors and learning strategies in response to these features.
Keywords: English as a Foreign Language, Libyan EFL learners, online learning, perception, proficiency, Zaltman
Metaphor Elicitation Technique
Cite as: Imani, A , & Elasfar, M.A.M. (2023). Online Learning is a City without Police: Influence of Proficiency on Libyan EFL Learners’ Perceptions. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL (9) 147-160.
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