Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 14. Number 1 March 2023                                    Pp. 300-315

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Teaching Critical Media Literacy to Fight Fake News in Moroccan Higher Education:
Focus on Facebook and YouTube

 Ouahiba Er-raid
Mohammed V University in Rabat
Rabat, Morocco

Ahmed Chouari
Moulay Ismail University of Meknes
Meknes, Morocco
Corresponding Author:


Received:01/06/2022         Accepted:03/07/2023                 Published: 03/24/2023

Since the appearance of COVID-19, there has been a global concern over the unprecedented spread of fake news on social media. In Morocco, social networks have become principal tools for spreading a vast array of fake news on different events, namely those connected to COVID-19. The large spread of fake news also made teaching Critical Media Literacy a must today to fight its devastating effects in countries where it is still primarily ignored,  namely at the university level. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to explore the types of fake news posts Moroccan university students are exposed to on Facebook and YouTube and to examine the pedagogies Moroccan teachers use to teach Critical Media Literacy in higher education to combat fake news. A short survey, semi-structured interviews, and teaching materials were used to collect data on Moroccan university students’ exposition o fake news and the strategies Moroccan teachers use to effectively teach Critical Media Literacy. The findings showed that Moroccan students were frequently exposed to various fake news posts on different issues and were not equipped with enough tools to spot fake news on social networks. Moroccan university teachers also faced adverse challenges in implementing adequate pedagogies to enhance Critical Media Literacy.
Keywords: Critical Media Literacy, effective teaching, Fake news, media literacy, social networks

Cite as: Er-raid, O., & Chouari, A. (2023).Teaching Critical Media Literacy to Fight Fake News in Moroccan Higher Education: Focus on Facebook and YouTube Arab World English Journal, 14 (1) 300-315.


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Received: 01/06/2022  
Accepted: 03/07/2023
Published: 3/24/2023

Ouahiba Er-raid is a Ph.D. researcher at Mohammed V University of Rabat, Morocco. Her Ph.D. thesis is on religious freedom and religious minorities in Morocco. She has a Master degree in communication, culture and dialogue. Her research interests are media studies, inter-faith dialogue, religious studies, and religious minorities in the MENA region.

 Ahmed Chouari currently teaches English studies at Moulay Ismail University of Meknes (UMI). He is an Associate Professor at the School of Arts and Humanities, Moulay Ismail University of Meknes, Morocco. He is also a Fulbright scholar. His main interests are culture, religion, media studies, communication, and critical thinking. ORCID: