Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on Covid 19 Challenges April 2021                          Pp.183 -198

Full Paper PDF

Innovative Practices in Instructor E-feedback: A Case Study of E-feedback given in Three
Linguistic Courses during the COVID 19 Pandemic

Atef O. AbuSa’aleek
Department of English, College of Education,
Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

Mohammad Shariq
Department of English and Translation,
College of Sciences and Arts, Methnab,
Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Received:  12/1/2020              Accepted: 3/10/2021                  Published:4/26/2021

This study aimed to investigate the instructor’s electronic feedback practices during the COVID 19 Pandemic in terms of the nature of the content of e-feedback, the formulation, the challenges, and the multimodal nature of the instructor’s e-feedback. This study used a qualitative case study to obtain data from the instructor’s e-feedback in three linguistic courses as delivered, practiced by the single English language instructor. The instructor’s e-feedback via Blackboard and WhatsApp platform and the follow-up interview were analyzed qualitatively. The findings indicate that (1) the highest number of instructor’s e-feedback focused on global issues as compared to local issues, (2) the instructor composed his e-feedback in the form of eight main categories: explanations, suggestions, clarifications, questioning, repetitions, statements, praises, and commands, (3) the instructor used more screencasts for providing e-feedback, followed by written and audio modes respectively. The thematic analysis (4) revealed the instructor’s positive impression on providing e-feedback through these interactive modes (written, audio, and screencast) and a range of challenging issues such as students’ preference issues, technical issues, timing issues, financial and areal issues. This study is significant because it provides us with a comprehensive picture of the patterns of the feedback content, the formulation of the e-feedback, the multimodality of the instructor’s e-feedback, and the significant issues that emerged from the instructor’s e-feedback practices. However, further research should include a relative group of instructors to determine the impact of e-feedback on learners.
Keywords: Blackboard, Covid-19 Pandemic, e-feedback, linguistics, screencast, WhatsApp

Cite as: AbuSa’aleek, A. O., &  Mohammad Shariq, M. (2021). Innovative Practices in Instructor E-feedback: A Case Study of E-feedback given in Three Linguistic Courses during the COVID 19 Pandemic.  Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on Covid 19 Challenges (1) 183 -198.


AbuSeileek, A., & Abualsha’r, A. (2014). Using peer computer-mediated corrective feedback to support EFL learners’ writing. Language Learning & Technology18(1), 76-95.

Ai, H. (2017). Providing graduated corrective feedback in an intelligent computer-assisted language learning environment. ReCALL, 29(3), 313-334.

Alharbi, M. A. (2019). Exploring the potential of Google Doc in facilitating innovative teaching and learning practices in an EFL writing course. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching14(3), 227-242.

Alharbi, W. (2017). E-Feedback as a Scaffolding Teaching Strategy in the Online Language Classroom. Journal of Educational Technology Systems46(2), 239-251.

Ali, A. D. (2016). Effectiveness of Using Screencast Feedback on EFL Students’ Writing and Perception. English Language Teaching9(8), 106-121.

Aljaafreh, A., & Lantolf, J. P. (1994). Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the zone of proximal development. The modern language journal78(4), 465-483.

Alvarez, I., Espasa, A., & Guasch, T. (2012). The value of feedback in improving collaborative writing assignments in an online learning environment. Studies in Higher Education37(4), 387-400.

Alvira, R. (2016). The impact of oral and written feedback on EFL writers with the use of screencasts. Profile Issues in Teachers Professional Development18(2), 79-92.

Arslan, R. S. (2013). Integrating Feedback into Prospective English Language Teachers’ Writing Process via Blogs and Portfolios. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET13(1), 131-150.

Bakla, A. (2020). A mixed-methods study of feedback modes in EFL writing. Language Learning & Technology, 24(1), 107–128.

Bao, W. (2020). COVID-19 and online teaching in higher education: A case study of Peking University. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies2(2), 113-115.

Basabrin, A. (2019). Exploring EFL Instructors and Students Perceptions of Written Corrective Feedback on Blackboard Platform: A Case Study. Arab World English Journal, Special Issue 1: Application of Global ELT Practices in Saudi Arabia, 179-192.

Basilaia, G., & Kvavadze, D. (2020). Transition to online education in schools during a SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic in Georgia. Pedagogical Research5(4), 1-9. DOI: 10.29333/pr/7937

Borup, J., West, R. E., & Thomas, R. (2015). The impact of text versus video communication on instructor feedback in blended courses. Educational Technology Research and Development63(2), 161-184.

Cavaleri, M., Kawaguchi, S., Di Biase, B., & Power, C. (2019). How recorded audio-visual feedback can improve academic language support. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice16(4), 1-19.

Cavanaugh, A. J., & Song, L. (2014). Audio feedback versus written feedback: Instructors’ and students’ perspectives. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching10(1), 122-138

Chalmers, C., MacCallum, J., Mowat, E., & Fulton, N. (2014). Audio feedback: richer language but no measurable impact on student performance. Practitioner Research in Higher Education8(1), 64-73.

Chang, C., Kelly, J. C., Satar, H. M., & Strobl, C. (2017). Electronic feedback on second language writing: A retrospective and prospective essay on multimodality. Writing & Pedagogy, 9(3), 05–428

Cunningham, K. J. (2017). Appraisal as a framework for understanding multimodal electronic feedback: Positioning and purpose in screencast video and text feedback in ESL writing. Writing & Pedagogy9(3), 457–485.

Cunningham, K. J. (2019). Student perceptions and use of technology-mediated text & screencast feedback in ESL writing. Computers & Composition, 52, 222-241.

Demirbilek, M. (2015). Social media and peer feedback: What do students really think about using Wiki and Facebook as platforms for peer feedback? Active Learning in Higher Education16(3), 211-224.

Dippold, D. (2009). Peer feedback through blogs: Student and tutor perceptions in an advanced German class. ReCALL21(1), 18-36.

Draissi, Z., & Yong, Q. Z. (2020). COVID-19 Outbreak Response Plan: Implementing Distance Education in Moroccan Universities.

Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2016). Supporting second language writing using multimodal feedback. Foreign Language Annals49(1), 58-74.

Ene, E., & Upton, T. A. (2014). Learner uptake of teacher electronic feedback in ESL composition. System46, 80-95.

Ene, E., & Upton, T. A. (2018). Synchronous and asynchronous teacher electronic feedback and learner uptake in ESL composition. Journal of Second Language Writing41, 1-13.

Ghosn-Chelala, M., & Al-Chibani, W. (2018). Screencasting: supportive feedback for EFL remedial writing students. The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, 35(3), 146-159.

Goldstein, L. (2006). Feedback and revision in second language writing: Contextual, teacher, and student variables. In K. Hyland, & F. Hyland (Eds.). Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues (pp. 185–205). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gould, J., & Day, P. (2013). Hearing you loud and clear: student perspectives of audio feedback in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education38(5), 554-566.

Guasch, T., Espasa, A., & Martinez-Melo, M. (2018). The art of questioning in online learning environments: the potentialities of feedback in writing. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education44(1), 111-123.

Harper, F., Green, H., & Fernandez-Toro, M. (2012). Evaluating the integration of Jing® screencasts in feedback on written assignments. In 2012 15th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL) (pp. 1-7). IEEE.

Harper, F., Green, H., & Fernandez-Toro, M. (2018). Using screencasts in the teaching of modern languages: Investigating the use of Jing® in feedback on written assignments. The Language Learning Journal46(3), 277-292.

Henderson, M., & Phillips, M. (2015). Video-based feedback on student assessment: Scarily personal. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology31(1), 51-66. DOI:

Henderson, M., Ryan, T., & Phillips, M. (2019). The challenges of feedback in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education44(8), 1237-1252.

Hyland, K., & Hyland, F. (2006). Feedback on second language students’ writing. Language teaching39(2), 83-101,

Lantolf, J. P. (2006). Sociocultural theory and L2: State of the art. Studies in second language acquisition, 28,(1) 67-109.

London, J. (2019). Use of Asynchronous Audio Feedback in Discussion Boards With Online RN-BSN Students. Nurse educator44(6), 308-311.

Lunt, T., & Curran, J. (2010). ‘Are you listening please? The advantages of electronic audio feedback compared to written feedback. Assessment & evaluation in higher education35(7), 759-769.

Mahoney, P., Macfarlane, S., & Ajjawi, R. (2019). A qualitative synthesis of video feedback in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education24(2), 157-179.

Merriam, S. B. (1988). Case study research in education: A qualitative approach. United State, Jossey-Bass.

Neumann, K. L., & Kopcha, T. J. (2019). Using Google Docs for peer-then-teacher review on middle school students’ writing. Computers and Composition54, 1-16.

Orlando, J. (2016). A comparison of text, voice, and screencasting feedback to online students. American Journal of Distance Education30(3), 156-166.

Saeed, M. A., & Al Qunayeer, H. S. (2020). Exploring teacher interactive e-feedback on students’ writing through Google Docs: factors promoting interactivity and potential for learning. The Language Learning Journal, 1-18.

Saeed, M. A., & Ghazali, K. (2019). Engaging postgraduates in a peer research group at the research proposal stage in a Malaysian university: support and challenges. Teaching in Higher Education24(2), 180-196.

Shariq, M. (2020). Feedback and Speaking Skills in Task-Based Language Teaching: Proposed Corrective Measures for EFL Learners. Asian ESP Journal, 16(2.2), 232-248.

Silva, M. L. (2012). Camtasia in the classroom: Student attitudes and preferences for video commentary or Microsoft Word comments during the revision process. Computers and Composition, 29, 1–22.

Stannard, R. (2008). Screen capture software for feedback in language education. In Proceedings of the Second International Wireless Ready Symposium, (pp. 16-20). NUCB Graduate School, Nagoya.

Stern, L. A., & Solomon, A. (2006). Effective faculty feedback: The road less traveled. Assessing writing11(1), 22-41.

Susanti, A., & Tarmuji, A. (2016). Techniques of optimizing WhatsApp as an instructional tool for teaching EFL writing in Indonesian senior high schools. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL)4(10), 26-31.

Tseng, S.-S., & Yeh, H.-C. (2019). The impact of video and written feedback on student preferences of English speaking practice. Language Learning & Technology, 23(2), 145–158.

Vincelette, E. J., & Bostic, T. (2013). Show and tell: Student and instructor perceptions of screencast assessment. Assessing Writing18(4), 257-277.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Yaku, A. D., & Aydın, S.  (2015): An experimental study on the effects of the use of blogs on EFL reading comprehension, 1-16 Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 11(1), 1-16.

Received: 12/1/2020 
Accepted: 3/10/2021
Published: 4/26/2021 

Dr. Atef AbuSa’aleek is an Assistant professor of Applied Linguistics, Department of English, College of Education, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah, 11952, Saudi Arabia. His research interests are CALL, internet linguistics, electronic feedback, and EFL writing.

Dr. Mohammad Shariq is an Assistant professor of Linguistics, Department of English & Translation, College of Sciences & Arts, Methnab, Qassim University, Qassim-Buraidah P.O. Box 6666-51452, KSA. His research interests are Theoretical, Descriptive and Applied Linguistics.  ORCID: