Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 14. Number 3 September 2023 Pp.351-367
Development, Validity, and Reliability of a Theme-based CBI Vocabulary Module for ESL
Post-secondary Tourism Management Students at an English-medium University
1Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Melaka,
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Siti Salina Mustakim4
2,3,4 Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Received:05/15/2023 Accepted:09/6/2023 Published:09/24/2023
Inadequate English vocabulary knowledge hampers English-medium university students’ comprehension of lecture and reference materials. Thus, the researchers aimed to specifically develop an intervention for vocabulary knowledge enhancement, which is a theme-based content-based instruction vocabulary module for first-semester Diploma in Tourism Management students using the ASSURE model. The rationale behind the vocabulary module development is that students tend to acquire vocabulary faster when they learn it through a familiar and meaningful context. Upon completion of the module’s development, it was examined for validity and reliability. Content validation of the module was evaluated by four experts using the Content Validity Index and Percentage Calculation Method. Meanwhile, the module’s reliability was tested in a pilot study using Cronbach’s alpha test on reliability questionnaire results and paired sample t-test comparison of pre and post-test scores of students’ vocabulary knowledge. The pilot study involved 20 students with varied English language proficiency levels at an English-medium university in Malaysia. Findings of content validation by four experts and module validation by the pilot study indicate that not only does the module have high validity and good reliability, but also succeeds in increasing the students’ post-test vocabulary knowledge scores compared to their pre-test scores. Overall, this study contributes empirical evidence for English as a Second Language (ESL) vocabulary module development. It also proves that a valid and reliable module must be developed by referring to an instructional design model, reviewed by subject matter experts, and tested with the target audience through a pilot study.
Keywords: Module development, vocabulary, reliability, theme-based content-based instruction, validity
Cite as: Ishak, N., Noordin,N., Ismail,L., & Mustakim, S. S. (2023). Development, Validity, and Reliability of a Theme-based CBI Vocabulary Module for ESL Post-secondary Tourism Management Students at an English-medium University. Arab World English Journal, 14 (3) 351-367. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol14no3.22
Abu Talib, J., Mohamad, Z., & Abdul Wahab, N. (2015). Validity and reliability of career exploration module. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 23(11), 2639-2644. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2015.23.11.22758.
Ahmad, J., Hassan, A., & Zainal Abidin, N. (2008). Developing, validity and reliability of drug addiction module among drug addicts who are undergoing treatment at rehabilitation centres. The Journal of International Social Research, 1(5), 47-57. Retrieved from: https://www.sosyalarastirmalar.com/articles/developing-validity-and-reliability-of-a-drug-addiction-module-among-drug-addicts-who-are-undergoing-treatment-at-rehabi.pdf.
Aminudin, N., Abd Aziz, S.A., & Jamal, S.A. (2023). International students’ intention to pursue postgraduate studies in Malaysia: The moderating effect of perceived overall tourism attractiveness. Asian Journal of University Education (AJUE), 19(2), 257-269. Retrieved from:https://doi.org/10.24191/ajue.v19i2.22236.
Aziz, N. N. B. A., & Mamat, N. (2018). Development and usability of training module on the efficacy and anxiety levels of teaching English among early childhood education teachers. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(12), 2250–2264. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i12/5436.
Carmines, E.G., & Zeller, R.A. (1979).The Theoretical Implications of Reliability and Validity Assessment. United States of America: Sage Publication, Inc
Che, S. (2017). Integration of three CBI models and WeChat mobile learning in business English teaching. English Language Teaching, 10 (9), 218-226. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/ 10.5539/elt.v10n9p218.
Chua, Y. L., Balakrishnan, B., Chai, V. C., & Koh, Y. Y. (2020). Assessing the validity and reliability of creative thinking skills module in a pilot study on engineering undergraduate in Malaysia. Asian Journal of Assessment in Teaching and Learning, 10(1), 78–86. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.37134/ajatel.vol10.1.9.2020
Chong, W. T., & Kee, L. L. (2019). Using vocabulary journals to improve vocabulary learning among primary school pupils in Malaysia. Journal of English Education (JEE), 4, 108-120. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.31327/jee.v4i2.1111
Destiani, I.,& Hidayat, M. T. (2019). The effectiveness of theme-based learning in teaching speaking skills. English Education and Applied Linguistics (EEAL), 2(3), 207-216. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.31980/eealjournal.v2i3.1724.
Fuad, R. A., Arip, M. A. S. M., & Sa’ad, F. (2019). Validity and reliability of the HM-Learning module among high school students in Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(1), 773–787. Retrieved from:http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v9-i1/5480.
Heinich, R., Molenda,M., Russell, J. D., & Smaldino, S. (1999). Instructional Media And Technologies for Learning (6th ed.). Prentice Hall.
Hertzog, M. (2008). Considerations in determining sample size for pilot studies. Research in Nursing & Health, 31, 180-191. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.20247.
Hair Jr., J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., & Anderson, R.E. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Prentice Hall.
Kurt, S. (2016). ASSURE: Instructional Design Model. Retrieved from:
Lynn, M. R. (1986). Determination and quantification of content validity. Nursing Research, 35(6), 382–385. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-198611000-00017.
Misbah, N.H., Mohamad, M., Md Yunus, M., &Ya’acob, A. (2017). Identifying the factors contributing to students’ difficulties in the English language learning. Creative Education, 8 (13), 1999-2008.Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2017.813136.
Mohamad Bagais, N. (2023). The effects of contextual clues on incidental vocabulary learning. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 10(3), 21-39. Retrieved from: https://www.jallr.com/index.php/JALLR/article/view/1292/1382.
Mohamad Tarmizi, M. H., & Janan, D. (2022). Content validity of the reading skills teaching module through a foreign language teaching approach. Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 7(12), 1-12. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.47405/mjssh.v7i12.1990.
Peng, C. (2022). Theme-based instruction in Chinese college English listening teaching: An empirical study. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 22(8), 155 -162.
Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v22i8.5335
Polit, D.F., Beck, C.T., & Owen S.V. (2007). Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health, 30(4), 459–67. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.20199.
Russell, J. D. (1974). Modular Instruction: A Guide to the Design, Selection, Utilization and Evaluation of Modular Materials. New York, NY: Publishing Company.
Tan, W.L. (2018). Improving The Academic Vocabulary of Tertiary Learners Through Direct Vocabulary Instruction with Gamification, (Unpublished doctorate dissertation). Wawasan Open University, Malaysia. Retrieved from:
Ting, F.K., & Tan, K. H. (2021). Enhancing English language vocabulary learning among indigenous learners through Google Translate. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 8(2), 143-148. https://doi.org/10.20448/journal.509.2021.82.143.148.
Tussa’diah, H., &Nurfadillah, K. (2018). The implementation of theme-based teaching to improve students’ achievement in narrative text. KnE Social Sciences: AICLLThe 1st Annual International Conference on Language and Literature 2018. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i4.1946.
Velasquez-Hoyos, A.P. (2021). Theme-based teaching to promote oral fluency in a university in Colombia. HOW, 28(2), 97-119. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.19183/how.28.2.555.
Yugandhar, K. (2016). Content-theme-based instruction to increase the quality of EFL class. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL),4(8), 86-90. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2347-3134.0408012.