Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 13. Number2. June 2022 Pp. 214-238
An Analytic Study of the Evaluative Resources Used in American and Iraqi Opinion
Ishraq Abdulredha Alsandeli
Department of English, College of Languages
University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Corresponding Author: email@example.com
Rihab Abduljaleel Saeed Alattar
Department of English, College of Languages*
University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Received:1/12/2022 Accepted: 3/24/2022 Published:6/24/2022
This study investigates how American and Iraqi writers utilize the evaluative resources in newspaper opinion articles (henceforth, op-eds) from a critical discourse analysis perspective. It explores how American and Iraqi writers of op-ed pieces draw on the evaluative resources to establish their attitudes, create rhetorical effects, and serve their ideologies in influencing readers’ and addressees’ feelings and attitudes towards certain subject matters. This study hopes to enhance the critical thinking of readers of an increasingly important journalistic genre in democratic societies. The main questions this study raises are: On which categories of attitude markers do American and Iraqi op-ed writers base their evaluation? Which types of referencing external voices are the most recurrent? And why? The researcher adopts Martin and White’s (2005) appraisal theory and Van Dijk’s (2006) ideology perspective to achieve the study’s goals. After applying qualitative and quantitative analysis methods, the study finds that the significant ideological strategy of positive-self presentation and negative other-presentation significantly motivates the evaluative resources used by American and Iraqi op-ed writers. Both American and Iraqi op-ed writers use similar evaluative techniques in terms of distribution. The analysis also finds that there are variations concerning the overall frequencies and the frequencies of the sub-types of evaluative resources under examination across the corpus.
Keywords: Attitude markers, critical discourse analysis, evaluation, external voices, opinion articles
Cite as: Alsandeli, I.A., & Alattar, R. A.S. (2022). An Analytic Study of the Evaluative Resources Used in American and Iraqi Opinion Columns. Arab World English Journal, 13 (2) 214-238.
Al-Rickaby, A. (2020). A Critical Discourse Analysis of Stance and Engagement Markers in English and Arabic Newspaper Opinion Articles in 2016. (Vol. 28, pp. 182- 194). Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities.
Al-Utbi, M. (2019). A Critical Discourse Analysis of Hate Speech. Journal of the College of Languages (JCL), (30), (pp. 19-40). University of Baghdad: College of Languages.
Chandler, D. (1997). An Introduction to Genre Theory: Available at http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/documents/intgenre/intgenre.html/
Dawson, C. (2009). Introduction to research methods: a practical guide for anyone undertaking a research project (4th Ed.). Oxford: How to Books.
Fairclough, N., & Wodak, R. (1997). Critical Discourse Analysis. In T. A. van Dijk (ed.), Discourse as Social Interaction (Vol. 2, pp. 258-84). London: Sage.
Feuer, J. (1992). Genre Study and Television. In R, C., Allen (Ed.): Channels of Discourse, Reassembled: Television and Contemporary Criticism. (pp. 138-59). London: Routledge
Freedman, A., & Medway, P. (Eds.) (1994a): Genre and the New Rhetoric. London: Taylor & Francis.
Henry, F., & Tator, C. (2002). Discourse of Domination: racial bias in the Canadian English-Language Press. Toronto: Toronto University Press.
Iedema, R., Feez, S., & White, P. (1994). Appraisal and Journalistic Discourse. Sydney: Disadvantaged Schools Program, NSW Department of School Education.
Kress, G. (1988). Communication and Culture: An Introduction. Kensington, NSW: New South Wales University Press.
Lihua, L. (2009). Discourse Construction of Social Power: interpersonal rhetoric in editorials of the China Daily. Discourse Studies: Sage Publications, Vol. (11), (pp. 59-78).
Macdonald, S., & Headlam, N. (2008). Research methods handbook: Introductory guide to research methods for social research. Manchester: UK Centre for Local Economic Strategies.
Martin, J., & White, P. (2005). The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. London & New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Nasser, A., A., & Khalil, S. (2021). A Critical Discourse Analysis of Martin Crimp’s Piece “Advice to Iraqi Women.” Journal of the College of Education for Women (Vol. 32, pp. 26-39).
Nikolaev, A., & Porpora, D. (2007). Talking war: How elite U.S. Newspaper editorials and Opinion Pieces Debated the Attack on Iraq. (Vol. 40, pp. 6-25). Sociological Focus: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Paltridge, B. (2012). Discourse Analysis (2nd ed.). London & New York: Bloomsbury Publishing PIc.
Pounds, G. (2010). Attitude and subjectivity in Italian and British hard-news reporting: The construction of a culture-specific ‘reporter’ voice. (Vol. 12, pp. 106-137). Sage Publications
Rasul, S. H. (2021). Evaluation in Media Reporting: A Comparative Analysis in BBC, CNN and Aljazeera Reports. (Published master thesis), University of Liverpool
Richardson, J. (2007). Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. London & New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Rogers, R. (2004). An Introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis in Education. New Jersey & London: Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum.
Shakeh, N., Maher, R., & Dumanig, F. (2015). Discoursal Analysis of Rhetorical Structure of an Online Iraqi English Newspaper. (Vol. 3, pp. 10-16). International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research.
Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Swayer, M., A., H., & Eesa, M., R., (2019). Evaluative Resources in Medical Research Articles Written by Medical Writers. Al-Adab Journal (Vol. 131, pp. 71-88). English Language Center/University of Technology: Baghdad
Van Dijk, T. A. (1995, December 14-16). Opinions and Ideologies in Editorials [Paper presentation]. The 4th International Symposium of Critical Discourse Analysis, Language, Social Life and Critical Thought, Athens.http://www.discursos.org/unpublished%20articles/Opinions%20and%20ideologies%20in%20editorials.htm
Van Dijk, T. A. (1997). Opinions and Ideologies in the Press. In A. Bell, & P. Garrett (1998). Approaches to Media Discourse. (pp. 21-62). Blackwell.
Van Dijk, T. A. (2006, December). Politics, Ideology, and Discourse. Research Gate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304041340_Politics_Ideology_and_Discourse
Van Dijk. T. A. (2011). Critical Discourse Analysis. In D. Tannen, E. H. Hamilton, & D. Schiffrin (eds.), The Handbook of Discourse Analysis (2nd ed., pp. 466-480). UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Weiss, G., & Wodak, R. (2003). Critical Discourse Analysis: theory and interdisciplinarity. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wilson, J., Sahlane, A., & Somerville, I. (2012). Argumentation and fallacy in newspaper op/ed coverage of the prelude to the invasion of Iraq. (Vol. 11, pp. 1-30). Journal of Language and Politics: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Wodak, R. (2001). What CDA is about – A Summary of Its History, Important Concepts and Its Developments. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer. Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage Publications, (pp.1-13).