Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 12. Number1  March 2021                                                Pp.198-214
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The Comparison between the Process-oriented Approach and the Product-oriented
Approach in Teaching Writing
The Case of Moroccan EFL Students in Preparatory Classes for the Grandes Ecoles 

Mariam Kadmiry
Faculty of Education, Mohammed V University
Rabat, Morocco


Received: 12/24/2020             Accepted: 2/8/2021                Published: 3/24/2021    


Writing is an important language skill, and learning to write is not an easy endeavour, especially for English as a foreign language (EFL) students. An effective EFL writing instruction, therefore, plays a significant role in helping EFL students deal with writing problems efficiently and approach writing tasks effectively. Based on this premise, the present study aims at investigating the effect of two alternative writing approaches, process and product, on Moroccan EFL students’ writing performance to find out which of these approaches is more effective. It explores process writing instruction based on Hayes’ (2012) recent model that responded to both critiques of the 1980-s original model of Flower and Hayes and to new ideas, which adds more layers to EFL writing research and instruction.  To this end, the participants were divided into two groups, A and B, and they all took a writing pre-test before the treatment. For three months (two hours per week),  group A students received academic argumentative writing instruction that was product-oriented, while group B students were taught academic argumentative writing based on Hayes’ (2012) process writing model. After the treatment, all participants took a writing post-test. The analysis of the collected data revealed that group B participants showed a significant improvement in their compositions compared to their group A counterparts, which provides evidence that the process-oriented approach is more effective in enhancing EFL writing than the product-oriented approach. In the light of these findings, some pedagogical recommendations were suggested.
Keywords: academic argumentative writing, EFL writing instruction, Hayes’ (2012) process
writing model, Moroccan EFL students, process-oriented approach, product-oriented approach 

Cite as: Kadmiry, M. (2021). The Comparison between the Process-oriented Approach and the Product-oriented Approach in Teaching Writing:
The Case of Moroccan EFL Students in Preparatory Classes for the Grandes Ecoles   Arab World English Journal, 12 (1) 198-214.


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Received: 12/24/2020
Accepted: 2/8/2021  
Published: 3/24/2021 

Mariam Kadmiry is an EFL teacher in preparatory classes for the grandes écoles, Rabat- Morocco. She holds an MA in Applied Linguistics and TEFL. She is currently doing her doctoral studies in EFL writing instruction at the faculty of Education at Mohammed V University, Rabat- Morocco. Her areas of interests include Applied Linguistics, second/foreign language acquisition, EFL writing instruction, and TEFL issues.