Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 15. Number 1, March 2024                                   Pp.258-268

Error Analysis of Written English Paragraphs by Kurdish and Arab Students: A Comparative Study

Sami Hussein Hakeem Barzani

English Language Teaching Department, Faculty of Education, Tishk International University,
Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Corresponding Author:

Independent Researcher, Erbil, Iraq


Competence in writing is an indispensable skill crucial for both academic and professional success, enabling effective expression of ideas, thoughts, and information. Writing proficiency encompasses more than word arrangement, extending to organizing ideas, utilizing proper grammar and punctuation, and conveying meaning clearly. However, second/foreign language learners often grapple with challenges in cultivating proficient writing skills. This investigation meticulously examines errors in a dataset comprising 40 English paragraphs authored by Kurdish and Arab learners. Employing error analysis, the study identifies and categorizes errors with the aim of discerning potential variations in error types and frequencies between the two student groups. Additionally, the research delves into gender-related differences in error occurrence. The results provide valuable insights for crafting language teaching materials and strategies tailored to English learners from Kurdish and Arab backgrounds, illuminating linguistic hurdles these students confront. The study’s findings underscore that punctuation errors prevail among both groups, exhibiting no significant disparities between Kurdish and Arab students. Similarly, gender differences among students do not yield any noteworthy distinctions.
Keywords: Arab student, English paragraphs, error analysis, Kurdish student, written error, writing skill

Cite as:

Barzani, S.H. H., & Baiz, A.B. M. (2024). Error Analysis of Written English Paragraphs by Kurdish and Arab Students: A Comparative Study.  Arab World English Journal, 15(1): 258-268. DOI:


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Dr. Sami Hussein Hakeem Barzani is a lecturer at Tishk International University, Faculty of Education, English Language Teaching Department. He obtained his Ph.D. (ELT) from Cyprus International University, TRNC, Turkey. His research interests include pragmatics, second language acquisition, error analysis, intercultural communication, sociolinguistics, and teaching English through literature. ORCID:

Awat Birqe Muho Baiz is an independent researcher. She holds a bachelor’s degree from Tishk International University, where she majored in English Language Teaching. Currently, Awat brings her passion for education to school students as a dedicated teacher. Her research interests include second language acquisition, error analysis and teaching English to young learners. ORCID: