Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 14. Number 1 March 2023                                             Pp. 105–119

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English Teachers’ Use of Multiple Modalities

 Nibal AbdelKarim Mousa Malkawi
Department of English Language and Literature
Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan 

Nazzem Mohammad Abdullah Attiyat
Department of English Language and Literature
Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan
Corressponding Author:

Fatima Mohammad Hasan Ismael
Al Albayt University , Jordan 

Atika Mohammad Hasan Ismael
Department of English Language and Literature
Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan 

Mahmoud Ali Ibrahim Rababah
Department of English Language and Literature
Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan


Received:10/06/2022             Accepted:02/24/2023                     Published:  03/24/2023


Integration of Information, Communication, and Technology helps instructors meet the global need for substituting technology-based teaching and learning tools and services for conventional teaching techniques. English teachers can customise learning for students, and thus it is important to explore new subjects and provide goal-focused training to students. Thus, motivating teachers to use technology and develop their teaching styles to emphasise good teaching is important. Teachers should stop seeing technology as an obstacle to learning. Self-efficacy theory relates to the expectancy-value framework, and motivation is based on the expectation of outcomes through a given course of action. Fundamental psychological needs can also be met with the help of motivation, which eventually increases the desire to undertake competent activities. This study revealed the importance of teachers’ technological skills to connect well with students and help them complete their tasks efficiently. Different theories, such as attribution and self-efficacy, have also been incorporated to understand the effectiveness of different tools and technologies. This method could improve students’ ability to learn new languages and their communication skills. This study recommends using information tools, as they effectively improve teaching methods and strategies. Information tools are considered strong and constructive tools that allow teachers to improve their strategies and communicate with students. Besides, it is also effective to incorporate lesson plans that can enhance the scope of students’ use of technologies to study and gather relevant ideas about various language and linguistic topics.
Keywords: Attribution theory, English language teachers, Jordanian teachers, multiple modalities, self-efficacy theory, technology

Cite as:  Malkawi, N.A.M., Attiyat, N. M.A.,  Ismael, F. M. H., Ismael , A. M.H., &  Rababah, M. A. I. (2023). English Teachers’ Use of Multiple Modalities. Arab World English Journal, 14 (1) 05—119.


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Received: 10/06/2022  
Accepted: 02/24/2023
Published: 03/24/2023  

Dr. Nibal Malkawi is an associate Her research focus is on teaching and learning, curriculum development, E-learning, blended learning, teacher training, and social integration. Nibal has over 30 years of experience teaching English as a university professor, educational supervisor, and researcher. She was a former language center director at Al-Balqa Applied University. And A coordinator for ” The Queen Rania Award for Excellence in Education” for 3 years. ORCID:

Nazzem Attiyat is a full-time lecturer in the English Language Department at Al- Balqa Applied University. Besides his experience as an English language lecturer, he took part as a cooperative translator in various conferences and symposiums. Moreover, His research interests are focused on language acquisition, language skills as well as methods of teaching English as a foreign language. He has published a research paper in (AWEJ) with 28 citations. ORCID: 

Atika Ismael is a full-time lecturer in the English Language Department at Al-Balqa Applied University. She has 18 years of teaching experience. She has taught for three years at Jerash University and has been teaching at Al-Balqa Applied University since 2007. Moreover, her research interests focus on literary works, difficulties that face Jordanian students when learning English as a foreign language, and papers that combine translation and literature. ORCID

Fatima Ismael is an Instructor in Arabic Language and Literature at Al Albayt University. She has 6 years of teaching experience at Al Albayt University, 6 years of teaching experience at a private school, and 5 years of teaching part-time lectures at The University of Jordan. She has been teaching at Al-Albayt University since 2016. Moreover, Her research interests focus on the Arabic language, Arabic syntax, and language acquisition. ORCID:

Mahmoud Ali Rababah received his Ph.D. in applied linguistics from Malaysia (UUM). He is a lecturer at Al-Balqa Applied University, Irbid University College, Jordan. His research interests include socio–pragmatics and sociolinguistics. ORCID: