Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 13. Number 4 December 2022                                  Pp.574-603

Retracted paper


EFL Learners’ Awareness of Oral Error Correction

Elias Kheder Bibo
Department of English, College of Basic Education,
University of Duhok,
Kurdistan Region – Iraq
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Lazgin Kheder Barany
Department of English, College of Language,
Nawroz University,
Kurdistan Region – Iraq


Announcement of Retraction
The editorial board announced this article has been retracted on December 24, 2022

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Reason: Violation of Publication Ethics


This paper aims at investigating EFL learners’ opinions, perceptions, and preferences of error correction (EC) including the necessity and acceptance of EC, contribution of EC to their language competency, frequency of EC, timing of EC, types of EC, strategies of EC, and delivering agents of EC. In order to achieve these aims, a 5-Likert scale questionnaire adopted from Fukuda (2004) consisting of 23 items was given to one-hundred-eighty students of second, third and fourth stages/years of the English department, college of Basic Education, university of Duhok. The study has come up with the following findings: the participants strongly agree that their erroneous utterances should be treated, EC contributes to developing their language skills, they usually want their teachers to give them feedbacks on their spoken errors and 63.9% of the students agree that their spoken errors are to be treated after they finish speaking.  As regard to the types of errors, 46.7% of the students wanted to receive corrective feedback (CF) on their serious verbal errors, which might generate poor comprehension. As for the strategies of CF, the clarification request was the most frequent strategy preferred by participants, followed by the recast as the second ranked strategy; the third ranked strategy is repetition while the “explicit feedback” strategy is the least and unwanted feedback. Finally, concerning the category of delivering agents of CF, teacher correction is the most frequent agent preferred by the participants.
Key words: CF delivering agents, CF strategies, corrective feedback, error correction, language skills, TESOL.

Cite as:  Bibo, E. K., &   Barany, L. K. (2022). EFL Learners’ Awareness of Oral Error Correction.  Arab World English
Journal, 13
(4) 574-603.