Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 14. Number 2 June 2023                                             Pp. 205-220

 Full Paper PDF   

A Review of Intended Learning Outcomes of English Lessons and Learning Motivation

 Hamood Albatti
English Language Department
Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia


Received:02/03/2023         Accepted:05/31/2023                 Published:06/24/2023


This study uses a descriptive narrative approach to critically analyze the evidence and findings from the recently published literature. The results indicate that explicitly stating the Intended Learning Outcomes and planning are essential for practical English Language Teaching and Learning and are critical for effective English Language Learning. Findings suggest that adopting specific instructional strategies such as graphic organizers that record what students know, what they want to know, and what they have learned significantly improves communicating Intended Learning Outcomes to students and, thereby, activating their schema for language acquisition and cognitive and affective engagement in learning. The study recommends further conducting a systematic scoping review providing suggested strategies that improve students’ engagement in the assessment process. It also provides an overview of learning motivation theories and highlights their direct bearing on achieving Intended Learning Outcomes during the learning process.
Keywords:  English as Foreign Language, intended learning outcomes, learning motivation, lesson outcomes,
motivation theories

Cite as:  Albatti, H.  (2023). A Review of Intended Learning Outcomes of English Lessons and Learning Motivation. Arab World English Journal, 14 (2) 205-220.


Aghajani, M., & Adloo, M. (2018). The Effect of Online Cooperative Learning on Students’ Writing Skills and Attitudes through Telegram Application. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 433-448.‏

Akcayir, M., Akcayir, G., Pektas, H. M., & Ocak, M. A. (2016). Augmented reality in science laboratories: The effects of augmented reality on university students’ laboratory skills and attitudes toward science laboratories. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 334-342

Alber-Morgan, S. R., Konrad, M., Hessler, T., Helton, M. R., & Telesman, A. O. (2022). Identify and prioritize long-and short-term learning goals. In J. McLesky, L. Maheady, M. Billingsley, M. T. Brownell, & T. J. Lewis (eds.),  High leverage practices for inclusive classrooms (2nd Ed., pp. 159-171). Routledge.‏

Alsalhi, N. R. (2020). The effects of the use of the Know-Want-Learn Strategy (KWL) on fourth-grade students’ achievement in science at the primary stage and their attitudes towards it. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(4), em1833.‏

Al-Munawwarah, S. F. (2018). Students’ Motivation in EFL Learning. TELL-US Journal, 4(2) 107-119.

Al-Wazzan, K. M. (2020). The Efficiency of Using KWL Strategy in Teaching Arabic for Speakers of Other Languages. International Journal of English and Education, 9(3), 164-173.‏

Snow, R.E., & Farr, M.J. (Eds.). (1987). Aptitude, Learning, and Instruction: Volume 3: Conative and Affective Process Analyses (1st ed.). Routledge.

Bandura A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.

Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175–1184.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W H Freeman/Times Books/ Henry Holt & Co.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication, Media Psychology, 3:3, 265–299, DOI: 10.1207/S1532785XMEP0303_03

Bauer, K. N., Orvis, K. A., Ely, K., & Surface, E. A. (2016). Re-examination of motivation in learning contexts: Meta-analytically investigating the role type of motivation plays in the prediction of key training outcomes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 31(1), 33-50

Bernacki, M. L., Vosicka, L., & Utz, J. C. (2020). Can a brief, digital skill training intervention help undergraduates “learn to learn” and improve their STEM achievement? Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(4), 765-781.‏

Biggs, J. B., & Collis, K. F. (2014). Evaluating the quality of learning: The SOLO taxonomy (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome). Academic Press.‏

Bralić, A., & Divjak, B. (2018). Integrating MOOCs in traditionally taught courses: achieving learning outcomes with blended learning. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(1), 1-16.‏

Cai, S., Chiang, F. K., Sun, Y., Lin, C., & Lee, J. J. (2016). Applications of augmented reality-based natural interactive learning in magnetic field instruction. Interactive Learning Environments, pp. 1-14

Cherry, K. (2016). What Is the Instinct Theory of Motivation? How Instincts Motivate Behavior. Retrieved from

Cherry, K. (2017). Are Actions Motivated by a Desire for Rewards? Retrieved from

Chin, D. B. et al. (2019). Educating and measuring choice: A test of the transfer of design thinking in problem solving and learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 28(3) 337–380.‏

Christison, M., & Murray, D. E. (2021). What English language teachers need to know Volume III: Designing curriculum. Routledge.‏

Ciampa, K. (2017). Building bridges between technology and content literacy in special education: Lessons learned from special educators’ use of integrated technology and perceived benefits for students. Literacy Research and Instruction, 56(2), 85–113.‏

Cordingley, P. et al. (2015). Developing Great Teaching: Lessons from the international reviews into effective professional development., Project Report. Teacher Development Trust, London.

Davis, E. A., Janssen, F. J., & Van Driel, J. H. (2016). Teachers and science curriculum materials: Where we are and where we need to go. Studies in science education, 52(2), 127-160.‏

Deci, E. L. (1975). Cognitive evaluation theory: effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. In EL Deci (Ed.), Intrinsic Motivation (129–159). Springer US.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985a). Toward an Organismic Integration Theory. In E. L. Deci and R.M. Ryan, (Eds.), Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior (pp. 113-148). Springer US.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Causality Orientations Theory. In Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. In E. L. Deci and R.M. Ryan, (Eds), Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. Perspectives in Social Psychology (pp. 149-175) Springer US.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2016). Optimizing students’ motivation in the era of testing and pressure: A self-determination theory perspective. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan ( Eds.), Building Autonomous Learners (pp. 9-29). Springer Singapore.

Eerde, W. V., & Thierry, H. (1996). Vroom’s expectancy models and work-related criteria: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 81(5), 575-586.

Frazer, C., Sullivan, D. H., Weatherspoon, D., & Hussey, L. (2017). Faculty perceptions of online teaching effectiveness and indicators of quality. Nursing Research and Practice, pp. 17, 1–6.

Gagne, M., & Deci, E. L. (2014). The history of self-determination theory in psychology and management. In M. Gagné (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory (pp. 1–9). Oxford University Press

García-Martínez, I., Fernández-Batanero, J. M., Cobos Sanchiz, D., & Luque de La Rosa, A. (2019). Using mobile devices for improving learning outcomes and teachers’ professionalization. Sustainability, 11(24), 1-12.

Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning. Newbury House Publishers

Gopalan, V., Abubakar, J. A., Zulkifli, A. N., Alwi, A., & Mat, R. C. (2017). The 2nd International Conference on Applied Science and Technology. (ICAST’17) AIP Conference Proceedings SCOPUS, 1891, 020043-1–020043-7;

Graham, R. W., Dennis, E., Korenich, J., & Cornell, M. (2013). Scoring a goal for learning. Science and Children, 51(3), 36-42.‏

Gilakjani, A., & Sabouri, N. B. (2016). How can students improve their reading comprehension  skills? Journal of Studies in Education, 6(2), 229-240.‏

Hamad, M. M. (2019). Basis of Designing Test Questions of English Language That Reflect Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs). Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 10(3), 627–640.‏

Hemamalini, P. H., & Washington, A. (2014). Employees’ Motivation and Valued Rewards as a Key to Effective QWL from the Perspective of Expectancy Theory. TSM Business Review, 2(2), 45-53.

Howe, C., Hennessy, S., Mercer, N., Vrikki, M., & Wheatley, L. (2019). Teacher–student dialogue during classroom teaching: Does it really impact student outcomes? Journal of the Learning Sciences, 28(4-5), pp. 462–512.‏

Huang, R. et al. (2020). The impact of gamification in educational settings on student learning outcomes: A meta-analysis. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(4), 1875-1901.‏

Jaiswal, P., & Al-Hattami, A. (2020). Enhancing Learners’ Academic Performances Using Student-Centered Approaches. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 15(16), 4-16.‏

John, Y. J. (2015). A” New” Thematic, Integrated Curriculum for Primary Schools of Trinidad and Tobago: A Paradigm Shift. International journal of higher education, 4(3), 172–187.‏

Jorre de St Jorre, T., & Oliver, B. (2018). Want students to engage? Contextualise graduate learning outcomes and assess for employability. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(1), 44-57, DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2017.1339183

Keller, J. M. (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design. Journal of instructional development, 10(3), 2-10

Keller, J. M. (2008). First principles of motivation to learn and e3-learning. Distance Education, 29(2), 175-185

Khoza, S. B. (2016). Is teaching without understanding curriculum visions and goals a high risk? South African Journal of Higher Education, 30(5), 104–119.‏

Krepf, M., Plöger, W., Scholl, D., & Seifert, A. (2018). Pedagogical content knowledge of experts and novices—what knowledge do they activate when analyzing science lessons? Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(1), 44-67.‏

Lange, C., Costley, J., & Han, S. L. (2016). Informal cooperative learning in small groups: The effect of scaffolding on participation. Issues in Educational Research, 26(2), 260–279.‏

Legault, L. (2016). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Springer International Publishing AG, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-

Li, T., & Lynch, R. (2016). Relationship between motivation for learning and academic achievement among basic and advanced level students studying Chinese as a foreign language in years 3 to 6 at Ascot International School in Bangkok, Thailand. Digital Production Press, Assumption University

Liu, C. C., Cheng, Y. B., & Huang, C. W. (2011). The effect of simulation games on the learning of computational problem-solving. Computers & Education, 57(3), 1907-1918

Looi, CK. et al. (2016). Bridging formal and informal learning with the use of mobile technology. In C. S. Chai, C. P. Lim, & C. M. Tan (Eds.), Future learning in primary schools: A Singapore perspective (pp. 79–96). Singapore: Springer.

López-Pastor, V., & Sicilia-Camacho, A. (2017). Formative and shared assessment in higher education. Lessons learned and challenges for the future. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 42(1), 77-97.‏

Mallidou, A. A. et at. (2018). Core knowledge translation competencies: a scoping review. BMC health services research, 18(1), 1-15.‏

Mallidou, A. A., Atherton, P., Chan, L., Frisch, N., Glegg, S., & Scarrow, G. (2018). Core knowledge translation competencies: a scoping review. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1), 502.

Malone, T. W., & Lepper, M. R. (1987). Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning. In R. E. Snow and J. F. Marshall ( Eds.), Aptitude, Learning, and Instruction, Vol 3: Conative and Affective Process Analyses. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

McGlynn, K., & Kelly, J. (2017). Using formative assessments to differentiate instruction. Science Scope, 41(4), 22–25.‏

Mercer, S. (2019). Language learner engagement: Setting the scene. In X. Gao ( Ed.), Second Handbook of English Language Teaching: Springer International Handbooks of Education (pp. 643–660). Springer, Cham.

Newman, M., & Ogle, D. (2019). Visual Literacy: reading, thinking, and communicating with visuals. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.‏

Nurfadilah, N. (2021). KWL (Know, Want to Know, Learned) Strategy for Teaching English Reading Comprehension In Efl Classroom. Al-Iftah: Journal of Islamic Studies and Society, 2(1), 91-110.‏

Omari, H. A. (2018). Analysis of the intended learning outcomes and learning activities of Action Pack textbooks in Jordan. Modern Applied Science, 12(5) 60–71.‏

Otwinowska, A., & Foryś, M. (2017). They learn the CLIL way, but do they like it? Affectivity and cognition in upper-primary CLIL classes. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 20(5), 457-480.‏

Ozcelik, E., Cagiltay, N. E., & Ozcelik, N. S. (2013). The effect of uncertainty on learning in game-like environments. Computers & Education, 67, 12-20

Price, K. M., & Nelson, K. L. (2018). Planning effective instruction: Diversity responsive methods and management. Cengage Learning.‏

Raba, A. A. A. (2017). The influence of think-pair-share (TPS) on improving students’ oral communication skills in EFL classrooms. Creative Education, 8(1), 12–23.‏

Rao, N. J. (2020). Outcome-based education: An outline. Higher Education for the Future, 7(1), 5–21.‏

Redelius, K., Quennerstedt, M., & Öhman, M. (2015). Communicating aims and learning goals in physical education: part of a subject for learning? Sport, Education and Society, 20(5), 641-655.‏ Retrieved from

Reynolds, H. L., & Kearns, K. D. (2017). A planning tool for incorporating backward design, active learning, and authentic assessment in the college classroom. College Teaching, 65(1), 17–27.‏

Riaz, S., Rambli, D. R. A., Salleh, R., & Mushtaq, A. (2010). Study to Investigate Learning Motivation Factors within Formal and Informal Learning Environments and their Influence upon Web-Based Learning. International Journal of Engineering and Technology 5(4), 41-50

Richards, J. C., & Pun, J. (2021). A typology of English-medium instruction. RELC Journal, 54(1) 1–22.

Roslöf, J. (2021). Intended Learning Outcomes of Seven Finnish B. Sc. in IT Programs. In Proceedings of the International CDIO Conference. Chulalongkorn University; Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi.‏

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions, Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1) 54–67.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). An overview of self-determination theory: An organismic-dialectical perspective. In Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Determination Research (pp. 3-33). University of Rochester Press

Shaikh, S., Daudpotta, S. M., & Imran, A. S. (2021). Bloom’s learning outcomes’ automatic classification using lstm and pre-trained word embeddings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers9, 117887-117909

Shankar, S., Gowtham, N., & Surekha, T. P. (2020). Faculty competency framework: Towards a better learning profession. Procedia Computer Science, 172, 357-363.‏

Sinambela, E., Manik, S., & Pangaribuan, R. E. (2015). Improving students’ reading comprehension achievement by using KWL strategy. English Linguistics Research, 4(3), 13-29.‏

Soffer, T., & Cohen, A. (2019). Students’ engagement characteristics predict the success and completion of online courses. Journal of computer-assisted learning, 35(3), 378-389.‏

Sriratanaviriyakul, N., & El-Den, J. (2019). Pedagogical discussion cases in higher education: The role of knowledge sharing in students’ learning. Procedia Computer Science, 161, 215-225.‏

Tarng, W., Ou, K. L., Yu, C. S., Liou, F. L., & Liou, H. H. (2015). Development of a virtual butterfly ecological system based on augmented reality and mobile learning technologies. Virtual Reality, 19(3-4), 253-266

Tractenberg, R.E., Lindvall, J. M., Attwood, T. K., & Via, A. (2020). Guidelines for curriculum and course development in higher education and training. F1000Research, 9.  DOI:10.31235/

Wang, W., & Zhan, J. (2020). The relationship between English language learner characteristics and online self-regulation: A structural equation modeling approach. Sustainability, 12(7), 3009.‏

Wiliam, D., & Thompson, M. (2017). Integrating assessment with learning: What will it take to make it work? In C. A. Dwyer, ( Ed.),  The future of assessment (pp. 53–82). Routledge.‏

Wlodkowski, R. J. (1978). Motivation and teaching: A practical guide. National Education Association of United States of America.

Wu, S. M., & Navera, G. S. (2018). ELT materials as sites of values education: a preliminary observation of secondary school materials. In H. P. Widodo, M. R. Perfecto, L. Van Canh, and A. Buripakdi ( Eds.), Situating moral and cultural values in elt materials (pp. 51-68). Springer, Cham.‏

Wu, W. H., Kao, H. Y., Wu, S. H., & Wei, C. W. (2019). Development and evaluation of affective domain using student feedback in entrepreneurial Massive Open Online Courses. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1109) 1-9.‏

Yanchapanta, A. D. R. (2018). The use of Bloom’s Taxonomy on students’ listening skills improvement, (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Universidad Técnica de Ambato. Dirección de Posgrado. Maestria en la Enseñanza del Idioma Inglés como Lengua Extranjera.‏

Yardimci, F., Bektas, M., Ozkutuk, N., Muslu, G. K., Gerceker, G. O., & Basbakkal, Z. (2017). A study of the relationship between the study process, motivation resources, and motivation problems of nursing students in different educational systems. Nurse Education Today, 48, 13–18.

Zhao, Y., Muhamad, M. M., & Mustakim, S. S. (2022). English Teaching Objectives from the Perspective of Bloom’s Cognitive Domain: A Case Study of Yuxi Normal University, China. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6 (3), 5622-5635.‏



Received: 02/03/2023
Accepted: 05/31/2023
Published: 06/24/2023 

Hamood Albatti is an Assistant Professor at Majmaah University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He received his BA in Applied Linguistics (English Language) from Imam University, Elqassim, Saudi Arabia. His Master’s degree was obtained from The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia, in Applied Linguistics (TESL-TEFL). He has a Ph.D. in Education (Quality Applications in TESL-TEFL) from the University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia, in 2015. He works as an academic professor teaching English Language to University students. His main research areas embrace English Language, grammar, Applied Linguistics, Quality, Higher Education, TESL, and TEFL. He has written some articles in the publication process in scholarly journals such as the Arab World English Journal. OrCiD ID: