Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 15. Number 1, March 2024                         Pp. 401-422

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 A Decadal Examination of Community of Inquiry and Blended Learning in EFL/ESL
Development: A Systematic Review

 Zinat A Tabassum
Department of Language and Literacy, Faculty of Education,
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

 Mohd Rashid Bin Mohd Saad
Department of Language and Literacy, Faculty of Education,
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Corresponding Author:


 Received:10/20/2023         Accepted:03/04/2024                 Published: 03/20/2024


The rising trend of blended learning, combining online and traditional classroom learning, shows its efficacy for teaching English as a foreign or second language. Utilizing the community of inquiry framework, it aims to establish effective online learning environments and merge them with blended learning to teach English to non-native speakers. The significance of this research lies in evaluating how this integration affects English teaching as a foreign or second language. The main research question, covering the last decade, investigates this approach’s specific challenges and long-term impacts on language learning. This study uses PRISMA guidelines to analyze Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar data. It includes a manual selection of highly cited studies for a systematic review methodology. Through a theoretical lens, it assesses predictors and outcomes and identifies trends in English as a foreign or second language oral instruction. The findings highlight the dimensions of knowledge, research methodologies, effectiveness, skill enhancement, and obstacles in integrating the community of inquiry with blended learning. Conclusively, the study offers recommendations to improve instructional quality and support the development of students, educators, and stakeholders for the continued growth of this pedagogical integration.
Keywords: English as a Foreign Language, English as a Second Language, the community of inquiry,
blended learning, systematic review

Cite as: Tabassum, Z.A., & Saad, M. R. (2024). A Decadal Examination of Community of Inquiry and Blended Learning in EFL/ESL Development: A Systematic Review.  Arab World English Journal, 15(1):  DOI:


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Received: 10/20/2023
Accepted: 03/04/2024
Published: 03/20/2024 

Zinat A Tabassum is a PhD Fellow. She is affiliated with the Department of Language and Literacy at the Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her doctoral work is in the field of EFL and teachers’ training. Her academic pursuits encompass a deep interest in linguistic exploration and literacy development. Email:

Mohd Rashid Bin Mohd Saad is an accomplished scholar in the realm of Language and Literacy. He holds a Senior Lecturer position in the Department of Language and Literacy within the Faculty of Education at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. His academic contributions include 24 articles, six books, and 21 education, language, and literacy chapters.