Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 14. Number 1 March 2023                                             Pp.137- 152

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Using Ideological Conflict to Create Carcinogen Risk in Arabic Scientific Discourse: A
Corpus-Based Study

Huda H. Khalil
Department of English, College of Arts
University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Corresponding author:

 Nassier A. G. Al-Zubaidi
Department of English, College of Arts
University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq


Received:11/30/2022         Accepted:01/30/2023                 Published: 03/24/2023


Many Arabic scientific debates are devoted to disputes on cancer and its causes. Scientists tend to inform people about the danger of consuming and being exposed to carcinogens. The paper aims to explore the proximization strategy that Arab scientists rely on to construct carcinogen risk to promote people’s preventive actions against carcinogens. The paper intends to answer the main question: how does the Arabic scientific discourse employ ideological conflict to construct carcinogen risk? It is hoped that the paper can provide insights into the linguistic construction of concepts through the ideological conflict between two different poles in the Arabic scientific discourse. It provides insights for Arab scientists by promoting their awareness of the potential of Arabic for presenting a fully intellectual reflection of scientific knowledge.  It focuses on the construction of carcinogen risk that generates tension between the values held by people and the opposing values ascribed to carcinogens. This aim is achieved by employing Cap’s (2013) cognitive pragmatic theory of proximization. The theory comprises three proximization strategies: spatial, temporal and axiological. The axiological proximization strategy is applied to a corpus of Arabic scientific discourse. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used in the analysis to produce more objective results. Anthony’s AntConc (2019) corpus linguistics software is used for conducting mathematical calculations through corpus linguistics. The paper has arrived at some conclusions that show how axiological proximization is employed to construct carcinogen risk which encourages people to take preventive actions.
Keywords: AntConc, axiological proximization, carcinogen risk, cognitive pragmatics, ideological conflict,
proximization theory, scientific discourse

Cite as: Khalil, H.H.,& Al-Zubaidi, N. A. G. (2023). Using Ideological Conflict to Create Carcinogen Risk in Arabic Scientific Discourse: A Corpus-Based Study. Arab World English Journal, 14 (1)137-152.


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Received: 11/30/2022
Accepted: 01/30/2023 
Published: 03/24/2023

Huda H. Khalil is an Assoc. Prof. in the University of Baghdad. She holds the M.A. degree in English language and Linguistics from the University of Baghdad. She has been teaching English language and linguistics related subjects in the University of Baghdad for B.A and M.A students since 2002.

Dr. Nassier A. G. Al-Zubaidi is an associate professor of English language and linguistics at the Department of English of the Faculty of Arts at Baghdad University, Iraq. He has a Ph.D. degree in English language and linguistics with a minor in cross-cultural pragmatics.