Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Vol.6. No.3 September  2015                                           Pp. 219 –229

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Transposition and Modulation to Translate Tourism Texts from English into Indonesian 

Budi Purnomo
Department of Tourism, Sahid Tourism Institute of Surakarta
Solo City, Central Java, Indonesia




This study attempts to evaluate the types and accuracy of two translation strategies, i.e. transposition (change of grammatical category) and modulation (change in point of view) used to translate tourism texts from English into Indonesian. The study is intended to be a descriptive and qualitative method. The data sources are obtained from documents and inter-raters. The documents are tourism texts along with their translations taken from Garuda Indonesia magazine. To reveal the types of transposition and modulation, the English and Indonesian texts were analyzed by the researcher. To know the accuracy of transposition and modulation, the translations were rated by three expert raters. The results of the analysis show that: (1) there are three types of transposition: (a) the change from singular to plural (and vice versa), or in the position of the adjective, (b) the change in grammatical structure from SL to TL because the SL grammatical structure does not exist in TL and (c) an alternative to when literal translation of SL text may not accord with natural usage in TL; (2) there are two types of modulation: (a) obligatory modulation and (b) free modulation; (3) the transposition used is generally accurate; and (4) the modulation used is generally less accurate. The findings imply that transposition and modulation might be fundamental for translation strategies, a distinction which has been taken for granted in translating activities.
Keywords: modulation, tourism texts, transposition

Cite as:  Purnomo, B. (2015). Transposition and Modulation to Translate Tourism Texts from English into Indonesian.
Arab World English Journal, 8 (3).


Dr. Budi Purnomo holds MA in Translation Studies from Sebelas Maret University and PhD in
Linguistics from Gadjah Mada University. His studies have covered the areas of translation,
language teaching, tourism and intercultural communication. He is currently faculty member and
President at Sahid Tourism Institute of Surakarta, Indonesia.