Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) 2nd Special Issue on Covid 19 Challenges January 2022               Pp. 356 -376

Full Paper PDF 


The King Abdulaziz University COVID-19 e-vaccine: An Evaluation of the Emergency
Training Knowledge Model

Hisham Jameel Bardesi
Deanship of e- Learning and Distance Education
King Abdulaziz University
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Ibrahim Garba
Faculty of Applied Studies
King Abdulaziz University
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Corresponding Author:


Received:12/12/2021                         Accepted:1/11/2022                Published: 1/24/2022


King Abdulaziz University (KAU) took extra measures in response to COVID-19 in March 2020. The current research evaluated an Emergency Training Session (ETS) Knowledge Model during the pandemic with the aim of identifying for the Deanship of e-Learning and Distance Education (DeLDE) to evaluate how the e-learning services support learning and teaching at KAU beyond the pandemic. The Knowledge Model gathered quantitative data regarding the learning management system (LMS) e-service usage from students (n=2359 female and n=1580 male) and teachers (n=414). Also, the model used insights from qualitative data that came from the critical reflections of the trainer-researcher. We offer critical insight from the review of the literature and the results of the evaluation. First, the evaluation outlines the importance of evaluators bringing some assumptions with them when evaluating programmes. In the case of DeLDE, the assumptions promoted the interest of DeLDE in generating knowledge from different perspectives regarding DeLDE’s e-learning services contextualised as the ETS Knowledge Model. The assumptions gave importance to behaviourist and constructivist learning theories and a goal and decision-making philosophy of evaluation. Finally, contextualising the participant-researchers as the Dean and trainer at DeLDE, the evaluation gained from the participants’ familiarity of the ETS Knowledge Model’s context.
Keywords: COVID-19, critical reflection, e-learning policy, emergency training evaluation, higher education, knowledge-evaluation, process analysis, Saudi university context, strategic planning, sustainable development

Cite as: Bardesi, H. J., & Garba, I. (2022).  The King Abdulaziz University COVID-19 e-vaccine: An Evaluation of the Emergency Training Knowledge Model.  Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) 2nd Special Issue on Covid 19 Challenges (2) 356-376.


Ahlström, H. (2019). Policy hotspots for sustainability: Changes in the EU regulation of sustainable business and finance. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(2).

AI-Youbi, A. O., Al-Hayani, A., Bardesi, H. J., Basheri, M., Lytras, M. D., & Aljohani, N. R. (2020). The King Abdulaziz University (KAU) pandemic framework: A methodological approach to leverage social media for the sustainable management of higher education in crisis. Sustainability, 12(11), 4367.

Almaiah, M. A., & Alyoussef, I. Y. (2019). Analysis of the effect of course design, course content support, course assessment and instructor characteristics on the actual use of E-learning system. IEEE Access, 7, 171907–171922.

Alsalamah, A., & Callinan, C. (2021). Adaptation of Kirkpatrick’s four-level model of training criteria to evaluate training programmes for head teachers. Education Sciences, 11(3), 116.

Alsowayegh, N., Baradesi, H., & Garba, I. (2018). Creating an effective e-learning content: implications for a language learning program. 12th Annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference, 1, 8603–8611.

Asgar, A., & Satyanarayana, R. (2021). An evaluation of faculty development programme on the design and development of self-learning materials for open distance learning. Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, 16(1), 98–115.

Ballantine, J., Levy, M., Martin, A., Munro, I., & Powell, P. (2000). An ethical perspective on information systems evaluation. International Journal of Agile Management Systems, 2(3), 233–241.

Barnes, S. J. (2020). Information management research and practice in the post-COVID-19 world. International Journal of Information Management, 55.

Becker, H., & Geer, B. (1960). Participant observation: The analysis of qualitative field data. In R.Adams & J.Preiss (Eds.), Human Organization Research: Field Relations and Techniques.

Bonk, C. J. (2016). Keynote: What is the state of e-learning? Reflections on 30 ways learning is changing. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 20(2), 6–20.

Bonk, C. J., Medury, P. V., & Reynolds, T. H. (1994). Cooperative hypermedia: The marriage of collaborative writing and mediated environments. Computers in the Schools, 10(1–2), 79–124.

Brinkerhoff, R. O. (2005). The success case method: A strategic evaluation approach to increasing the value and effect of training. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(1), 86–101.

Burke, L. A., & Hutchins, H. M. (2007). Training transfer: An integrative literature review. Human Resource Development Review, 6(3), 263–296.

Cameron, K. S., & Whetten, D. A. (1983). Some conclusions about organizational effectiveness. In Organizational Effectiveness (pp. 261–277).

Coffey, A. (2014). Analysing documents. In U. Flick (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Analysis (pp. 367–379).

Cohen, D. J., Leviton, L. C., Isaacson, N., Tallia, A. F., & Crabtree, B. F. (2006). Online diaries for qualitative evaluation: Gaining real-time insights. American Journal of Evaluation, 27(2), 163–184.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Mixed methods procedures. In Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed., pp. 203–226). Sage.

Durand, R., Decker, P. J., & Kirkman, D. M. (2014). Evaluation methodologies for estimating the likelihood of program implementation failure. American Journal of Evaluation, 35(3), 404–418.

E4ENG. (2020). Smashing COVID-19 through innovating with education in Saudi. E4ENG Blog.

Easterby-Smith, M. (1994). Evaluating, management development, training and education. Gower.

Flanagan, J. (1949). Critical requirements: A new approach to employee evaluation. In E. C. Wragg (Ed.), An Introduction to Classroom Observation. Routledge.

Galloway, D. L. (2005). Evaluating distance delivery and e-learning is kirkpatrick’s model relevant? Performance Improvement, 44(4), 21–27.

Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105–117). Sage.

Gustafsson, J.-E., Lander, R., & Myrberg, E. (2014). Inspections of Swedish schools: A critical reflection on intended effects, causal mechanisms and methods. Education Inquiry, 5(4), 461–479.

Hean, S., Craddock, D., & O’Halloran, C. (2009). Learning theories and interprofessional education: A user’s guide. Learning in Health and Social Care, 8(4), 250–262.

Holmes, B., & Gardner, J. (2006). e-Learning: Concepts and practice. In e-Learning: Concepts and Practice. SAGE Publications Ltd.

House, E. R. (1980). Evaluating with validity. Sage.

Ilhan, A. (2020). Organizational Goals: A theoretical examination on classification. International Journal of Management (IJM), 11(7), 1086–1098.

Joinson, A. N. (2012). Gathering data on the Internet: Qualitative approaches and possibilities for mixed methods research. In A. Joinson, K. McKenna, U. Reips, & T. Postmes (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Internet Psychology (pp. 405–428). Oxford University Press.

Judd, C. M. (1987). Combining process and outcome evaluation. In New Directions for Program Evaluation (Vol. 1987, Issue 35, pp. 23–41).

Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1998). Evaluating training program. Berrett Koehler Publishers.

Kirkpatrick, D. L., & Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2009). Evaluating: Part of a ten‐step process. In Evaluating Training Programs (pp. 3–20). Berrett‐Koehler Publishers.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press.

Lebeau, Y., & Alruwaili, J. (2021). Convergence and local orders in the dynamics of change in higher education: A perspective from Saudi Arabia. Policy Reviews in Higher Education, 1–21.

Lee, C., Jeon, D., Kim, W., & Lee, J. (2017). Evaluating training for new government officials: A case study using the Success case method. Public Personnel Management, 46(4), 419–444.

Marshall, S. J. (2018). Shaping the university of the future: Using technology to catalyse change in university learning and teaching. In Shaping the University of the Future: Using Technology to Catalyse Change in University Learning and Teaching. Springer Singapore.

McIntosh, T., Higgs, C., Mumford, M., Connelly, S., & DuBois, J. (2018). Continuous evaluation in ethics education: A case study. Science and Engineering Ethics, 24(2), 727–754.

Mezirow, J. (1990). How critical reflection triggers transformative learning. In Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transformative and emancipatory learning (p. 12).

Mulcahy, R. S. (2020). Creating effective elearning to help drive change. Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, 27(6), 362–368.

O’Keefe, L., Dellinger, J. T., Mathes, J., Holland, T. L., & Knott, J. (2020). The state of online learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A COVID-19 impact study for higher education.

Osam, E. K., & Nold, K. (2020). A case study on the application of a human performance technology model to a sports product manufacturing company. Performance Improvement, 59(5), 17–25.

Patel, S. R., Margolies, P. J., Covell, N. H., Lipscomb, C., & Dixon, L. B. (2018). Using instructional design, analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate, to develop e-Learning modules to disseminate supported employment for community behavioral health treatment programs in New York State. Frontiers in Public Health, 6.

Reio, T. G., Rocco, T. S., Smith, D. H., & Chang, E. (2017). A critique of Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model. New Horizons in Adult Education and Human Resource Development, 29(2), 35–53.

Rosellini, A. (2019). Effective knowledge transfer and behavioural change in a training environment. Journal of Information & Knowledge Management, 18(04), 1950049.

Shannon-Baker, P. (2016). Making paradigms meaningful in mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 10(4), 319–334.

Siengthai, S. (2015). A reflection on a leadership training programme of the ministry of interior, Thailand. Human Resource Development International, 18(3), 317–324.

Sim, J., & Radloff, A. (2008). Enhancing reflective practice through online learning: Impact on clinical practice. Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal, 4(1).

Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 443–466). Sage Publications.

Teddlie, C., & Tashakkori, A. (2011). Mixed methods research: Contemporary issues in an emerging field. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (pp. 285–299). Sage.

UNESCO. (2020). COVID-19 Educational disruption and response. COVID-19.

Valderrama-Hernández, R., Sánchez-Carracedo, F., Rubio, L. A., & Limón-Domínguez, D. (2020). Methodology to analyze the effectiveness of ESD in a higher degree in education. A case study. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(1), 1–27.

Venkatraman, N., & Ramanujam, V. (1986). Measurement of business performance in strategy research: A comparison of approaches. Academy of Management Review, 11(4), 801–814.

Watson, W. R., & Watson, S. L. (2013). Exploding the ivory tower: Systemic change for higher education. TechTrends, 57(5), 42–46.

Webb, E. J., Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., & Sechrest, L. (2000). Unobtrusive measures: Nonreactive research in the social sciences. In Journal of the American Statistical Association (Vol. 65, Issue 331). Sage Publications.

Weick, K. E. (1976). Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, 1–19.

Yin, R. K., & Davis, D. (2007). Adding new dimensions to case study evaluations: The case of evaluating comprehensive reforms. New Directions for Evaluation, 2007(113), 75–93.

Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on tumblr
Share on reddit
Share on email
Share on stumbleupon
Share on digg
Received: 12/12/2021   
Accepted: 1/11/2022  
Published: 1/24/2022
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on tumblr
Share on digg
Share on email
Share on reddit
Share on stumbleupon
Share on vk

Dr. Hisham J Bardesi is the Dean of Deanship e- Learning and Distance Education at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. He promotes e-learning in higher education.

Ibrahim Garba is the e-learning coordinator, consultant, English language Lecturer and teacher trainer at King Abdulaziz University. He has interest in educational technology and country development through education. His research includes communicating policy research to inform policy and strategic development.