Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL Number 9. July 2023 Pp. 274-291
The Impact of Using the Multimedia Modality Principle to Teach Shakespearean Drama
English Language Department, College of Arts
University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Zakariya A. Bani-Salameh
English Language Department, College of Arts
University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia
Received: 03/31/2023 Accepted: 07/03/2023 Published: 07/24/2023
The present study investigates the effect of the modality principle in multimedia learning during the teaching of drama at the English department at a Saudi university, the University of Ha’il. It compares explicitly the impact of using static pictures and narration concurrently with on-screen text for the control group with the impact of using pictures with narration only for the experimental group. A sample of 69 male English-majoring students was selected and divided into control and experimental groups. The aim was to determine which group performed better than the other with the hypothesis that audio-visual presentation of the selected content would enhance students’ knowledge retention and mental skills and would lead to better learning outcomes for the experimental group. A quasi-experimental design was adopted and ANCOVA test was used to observe variation in the scores of the two groups after studying Hamlet’s play. The results support the hypothesis. Students in the experimental group outperformed their counterparts in the control group. This was observed in the post-tests on the retention of knowledge and mental skills. The findings of this study provide additional evidence of the superiority of audio-visual presentation in a previously unstudied context related to the teaching of literary content.
Keywords: Computer-based multimedia, multimedia-based learning, modality principle, redundancy effect,
teaching Shakespearian drama, multimedia-based instruction
Cite as: Aljabr, F., & Bani-Salameh, Z. A. (2023). The Impact of Using the Multimedia Modality Principle to Teach
Shakespearean Drama. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL (9) 274-291.
Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2014). Grade change: Tracking online education in the United States. Babson Survey Research Group and Quahog ResearchGroup.
Ayers, P. L., & Sweller, J. T.(2005). The split-attention principle in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 135-146). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ayers, P. L., & Sweller, J. T. (2014). The split-attention principle in multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of multimedia learning ( 2nd ed., pp. 206-226). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Badeley, A.D. (2000). Working memory: The interface between memory and cognition. In M. Gazzaniga (Ed.), Cognitive Neuroscience: A Reader(pp. 292-304). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Castro-Alonso, J. C.,& Sweller, J. (2020). The modality effect of cognitive load theory. In W. Karwowski, T. Ahram, & S. Nazir (eds.), Advances in Human Factors in Training, Education, and Learning Sciences (pp. 75-84). AHFE 2019. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer, 963, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20135-7_7
Cavanagh, T. M., & Kiersch, C. (2022). Using commonly-available technologies to create online multimedia lessons through the application of the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 5, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-022-10181-1
Çeken, B., & Taşkın, N. (2022). Multimedia learning principles in different learning environments: a systematic review. Smart Learning Environments, 9(19), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-022-00200-2
Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2016). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. John Wiley & Sons.
Clark, R.C., Nguyen, F., & Sweller, J. (2006). Efficiency in learning: evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2005). Research Methods in Education(5th ed.). London, Taylor & Francis e-Library, Routledge.https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203224342
Colliot, T., & Jamet, É. (2018). Understanding the effects of a teacher video on learning from a multimedia document: an eye-tracking study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 66(6), 1415-1433. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11423-018-9594-x
Eitel, A. (2016). How repeated studying and testing affect multimedia learning: Evidence for adaptation to task demands. Learning and Instruction, 41, 70– 84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.10.003
Ginns, P. (2005). Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction, 15(4), 313-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2005.07.001
Ginting, D. et al. (2022). English language teachers’ multimedia knowledge in teaching using technology. World Journal of English Language, 12(6), 184-203. doi:10.5430/wjel.v12n6p184
Harskamp, E., Mayer, R., & Suhre, C. (2007). Does the modality principle for multimedia learning apply science classrooms? Learning and Instruction, 17(5), 465-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.09.010
Incecay, V., & Kocoğlu, Z. (2016). Investigating the effects of multimedia input modality on L2 listening skills of Turkish EFL learners. Education and Information Technologies, 22(3), 1–16.10.1007/s10639-016-9463-3
Knoop-van Campen, C. A. N., Segers, E., &Verhoeven, L. (2018). The modality and redundancy effects in multimedia learning in children with dyslexia. Dyslexia,24(2), 140-155. https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.1585
Krüger, J. M., & Bodemer, D. (2022). Application and investigation of multimedia design principles in augmented reality learning environments. Information, 13(74), 1-29. https://doi.org/10.3390/info13020074
Kühl, T., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Edelmann, J. (2011). The influence of text modality on learning with static and dynamic visualizations. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 29-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.008
Lee, H., & Mayer, R. E. (2018). Fostering learning from instructional videos in a second language. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 32(5), 648-654. doi:10.1002/acp.3436
Liu, TC., Lin, YC., Hsu, CY., Hsu, CY., & Paas, F. (2021). Learning from animations and computer simulations: modality and reverse modality effects. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12996.
Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia Learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press University.
Mayer, R. E. (2005). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 31–48). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, R. E. (2009). Multimedia learning ( 2nd ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, R. E. (2014). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (pp. 43–71). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, R. E. (2021). Multimedia learning (3rd ed.). UK: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, R. E., Lee, H., & Peebles, A. (2014). Multimedia learning in a second language: A cognitive load perspective. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(5), 653–660. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3050
Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(2), 358-368. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1688
Mutlu-Bayraktar, D., Cossgun, V., & Altan, T. (2019). Cognitive load in multimedia learning environments: a systematic review. Computers and Education, 141, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103618
Savoji, A. P., Hassanabadi, H., & Fasihipour, Z. (2011). The modality effect in learner-paced multimedia learning. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1488-1493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.288
Scheiter, K. et al.(2019). Adaptive multimedia: Using gaze-contingent instructional guidance to provide personalized processing support. Computers & Education, 139, 31–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. compedu.2019.05.005.
Scheiter, K., Schüler, A., Gerjets, P., Huk, T., & Hesse, F. W. (2014). Extending multimedia research: how do prerequisite knowledge and reading comprehension affect learning from text and pictures. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 73-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.09.022
Schmidt-Weigand, F., Kohnert, A., & Glowalla, U. (2010). A closer look at split visual attention in system- and self-paced instruction in multimedia learning. Learning and Instruction, 20(2), 100-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.02.011
Singh, AM., Marcus, N., & Ayres, P. (2012). The transient information effect: investigating the impact of segmentation on spoken and written text. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(6), 848-853. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1002/acp.2885
Sweller, J. (1999). Instructional design in technical areas. Camberwell, Australia: ACER Press.
Sweller, J. (2020). Cognitive load theory and educational technology. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(1), 1–16. https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s11423- 019- 09701-3
Tabbers, H. K., Martens, R. L., & van Merrienboer, J. J. G. (2001). The modality effect in multimedia instructions. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 23(23), 1-7. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8fd0d9x5
Tabbers, H. K., Martens, R. L., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2004). Multimedia instructions and cognitive load theory: Effects of modality and cueing. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 71–81. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709904322848824
United Nations Educational, Scientific, & Cultural Organization. (2021). One year into COVID: prioritizing education recovery to avoid a generational catastrophe (Programme Document ED/ ADG/2021/01). Retrieved from the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Available at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/in/rest/annotationSVC/DownloadWatermarkedAttachment/attach_import_3ddce3cd-a291-4ed1-ac1c-58ba9fa94489?_=376984eng.pdf?to=16&from=1
Van den Broek, G. S. E., Segers, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2014). Effects of text modality in multimedia presentations on written and oral performance. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 30(5), 438-449. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12058