Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 13. Number2.  June 2022                                               Pp.37- 49

Full Paper PDF   

 The Effects of Reading Habits on Test Performance by Foundation-level Omani Students 

Sarath W. Samaranayake
Department of International Language Teaching
Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand
Corresponding Author:

Suneeta Kositchaivat
Department of International Language Teaching
Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

Vachira Jantarach
Department of International Language Teaching
Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand


Received: 3/30/2022                     Accepted:5/27/2022                         Published: 6/24/2022


The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of reading habits among college-level foundation Omani students and their impact on the participants’ performance in tests. The study used a qualitative and quantitative research method in which 70 participants from the foundation level were included. A survey questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data, while two college-based reading tests were used to collect quantitative data from the college-based tests. The main research question this study attempted to answer was whether foundation-level students have positive reading habits and attitudes towards books. At the end of the study, the data were analyzed quantitatively, using descriptive and inferential statistics to ascertain whether there was a correlation between positive reading habits in English and the participants’ performance in an examination setting. The results indicated that positive reading habits correlated positively with the participants’ test scores on two consecutive tests. Given the positive effects that emerged from the current study, the researchers would like to recommend that English reading teachers guide and encourage their learners to engage in reading as much as possible, as such habits will help them improve all aspects of literacy and succeed in achieving their educational and life goals with ease.
Keywords: Academic achievement, literacy development, reading habits, tertiary Omani learners, test performance,

Cite as: Samaranayake, S.W., Suneeta, K., & Vachira, J. (2022). The Effects of Reading Habits on Test Performance by Foundation-level Omani Students. Arab World English Journal, 13 (2) 37- 49.


Adler, C. R. (2001). Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to  Read—National Institute for Literacy.

Al-Musalli, A. (2014). Redefining the Reading Culture: Overcoming EFL Teachers’ Prejudices  against Students’ Reading habits.
Arab World English Journal, 5(1), 211-223.

Bamberger, R. (1990). Developing the Reading Habituation (Tra: B. Capar). Ankara: Ministry of  Culture Publishing.

Clark, C., & Douglas, J. (2011). Young People’s Reading and Writing: An in-depth study focusing on enjoyment, behavior, attitudes, and attainment. The National Literacy Trust.

Clark, C. (2011). Setting the Baseline: The National Literacy Trust’s first annual survey into  reading – 2010. London:
The National Literacy Trust.

Clark, C., & De Zoysa, S. (2011). Mapping the interrelationships of reading enjoyment, attitudes,behavior, and attainment:
An exploratory investigation
. London: The National Literacy Trust.

Clark, C., & Rumbold, K. (2006). Reading for pleasure: A research overview. National Literacy  Trust. Retrieved from

Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1991). Tracking the unique effects of print exposure in children: Associations with vocabulary, general knowledge, and spelling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 264-274.

Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research Methods in Applied Linguistics. Oxford. Oxford University Press.

Erdem, A. (2015). A Research on Reading Habits of University Students: (Sample of Ankara University and Erciyes University),
Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174,   3983-3990. Doi:

Gleed, A. (2013). Booktrust Reading Habits Survey. Stockport. Cheshire, SK6 7GH.

Holte, M.S. (1998). Creating an optimum reading culture in the Low Countries: The role of Stitching Lezen Amsterdam
64th IFLA General Conference August 16-21.

Krashen, S. D. (1993). The Power of Reading. Eaglewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.

Krashen, S. (2004). The case for narrow reading. Language Magazine, 3(5), 17-19.

Krashen, S. D. (2013). Rosetta Stone: Does not provide compelling input research report at the best suggestive,
conflicting report on users’ attitudes. International Journal of Foreign Language Education, 8(1), 1-3.

Krashen, S. (2020). Optimal Input. Language Magazine, 19(3), 29-30.

Loan, F. A. (2009). Impact of New Technology on Reading Habits: A Glimpse of the World  Literature.
Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from

Liu, Z. (2005). Reading behavior in the digital environment: Changes in reading behavior over the Past ten years. Journal of
Documentation, 61
(6), 700-12.

Lumen College Success (n.d.). Module 7: Study Skills. The Purpose of Academic Reading. Retrieved from    the-purpose-of-academic-reading/

Ndikubwayezu, G. (2009). Rwanda: reading culture still very low-Minister Habineza. In the  New Times, 1387, April 25, 2.

Noor, N. M. (2011). Reading Habits and Preferences of EFL Post Graduates: A Case Study. Indonesian Journal of Applied
Linguistics, I1

Neuman, S. B. (1982). Television viewing and leisure reading: A qualitative analysis. Journal Of Educational Research,
(5), 299-304.

Oman Education: More than 10,000 students dropped out of college. (September 26). Times of

  Oman. dropped-out-of-colleges

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2002). Reading For Change  Performance And Engagement
Across Countries –Results from PISA 2000.

Pulvermüller, F. (2013). How neurons make meaning: brain mechanisms for embodied and

abstract-symbolic semantics, Trends in Cognitive Sciences,17(9), 458-470. Doi:

Ramirez, E. (2003). ‘The impact of the internet on the reading practices of a university community:  The case of UNAM’
A paper presented at the World Library and Information Congress:  69th IFLA General Conference and Council, Berlin, August 1-9.

Sheorey, R., & Mokhtari, K. (1994). The reading habits of college students at different levels of  reading proficiency.
Reading Improvement, 31, 156-66.

The Ministry of Education and the World Bank. (2012). The Education in Oman: The Drive for  Quality.

Tuzlukova, V., Eltayeb, C. & Gilhooly, A. (2013). Encouraging creative reading in EFL classroom. 3. International conference on foreign language learning and teaching, 2(1), 237-248.

Twist, L., Schagen, I., & Hodgson, C. (2007). Readers and Reading: the PIRLS 2006 National Report for England, 2006. Slough:
NFER. Verplanken, B., Myrbakk, V., & Rudi, E. (2005). The measurement of habit. In T. Betsch & S. Haberstroh (Eds.), The routines of decision making (pp. 231–247). Lawrence Erlbaum  Associates Publishers.

Wood, W., & Rünger, D. (2016). Psychology of Habits. Annual Review of Psychology, 67(1), 289-314.

Received: 3/30/2022
Accepted: 5/27/2022
Published: 6/24/2022  

Sarath Withanarachchi Samaranayake is an English lecturer at the Department of International Language Teaching, Silpakorn University, Thailand. He received his doctoral degree in General Linguistics from the University of South Africa. He has published several research articles in peer-reviewed international journals. His interests include teaching and researching in the domains of ESL and EFL.  ORCid ID:

Suneeta Kositchaivat (Ph.D.) is an assistant professor at the Department of International Language Teaching, Silpakorn University, Thailand. Her primary interests include communicative language teaching, English camp activities, and English project work. ORCid ID: 

Asst. Prof. Vachira Jantarach (Ph.D.) is an English lecturer at the Department of International Language Teaching, Silpakorn University, Thailand. His primary interests include English teaching methods, language acquisition, and research. ORCid ID: