Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL Number 6. July 2020                     Pp. 67-83
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/call6.5

Full Paper PDF

 

The Effects of an Interactive Web-based Test of English for
International Communication Tutoring Course on Thai Students’ English Grammar Proficiency

Orabudh Mayanondha
Language Institute, Thammasat University
Bangkok, Thailand

Kittitouch Soontornwipast
Language Institute, Thammasat University
Bangkok, Thailand

 

 

 

Abstract:
There has been a range of online Test of English for International Communication courses in Thailand. However, the courses lack interaction, and learners do not have enough opportunities to contact tutors when they have problems. Therefore, the interactive web-based Test of English for International Communication tutoring course was developed in this study to promote interaction in online learning. This study investigates the effects of the course on students’ English grammar proficiency and explores students’ opinions on the course. The participants were 40 Thai students enrolling in the course. This research employed the mixed-methods approach. The effects of the instruction on grammar proficiency were assessed by pre- and post-tests. Students’ opinions were explored through reflective journals, questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. The results show that students’ grammar proficiency significantly improved after taking the course. All students had a positive attitude towards the course. They perceived a high level of instructor-student interaction, leading to an increase in learning motivation and eagerness to complete the course. Although student-student interaction was in a slightly lower degree, the students had a positive impact on one another. Besides, considerable course flexibility facilitated active learning and increased students’ satisfaction. This course also encouraged autonomous learning as the students perceived a sense of responsibility for their study. Extrinsic incentives effectively motivated students to become more active and participate in activities. This study provides a guideline of the teaching approaches to incorporate the concept of interaction into web-based instruction to improve students’ grammar proficiency.
Keywords: English grammar, interaction, Thai students, Test of English for International Communication, web-based instruction

Cite as:   Mayanondha, O., & Soontornwipast, K. (2020). The Effects of an Interactive Web-based Test of English for International Communication Tutoring Course on Thai Students’ English Grammar Proficiency. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL (6). 67-83. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/call6.5 

References

Abuhassna, H., & Yahaya, N. (2018). Students’ Utilization of Distance Learning through An Interventional Online Module Based on Moore Transactional Distance Theory. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education14(7), 3043-3052. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/91606

Akkakoson, S. (2016). Speaking Anxiety in English Conversation Classrooms among Thai Students. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction13(1), 63-82. https://doi.org/10.32890/mjli2016.13.1.4

Akyol, Z., & Garrison, D. R. (2011). Understanding Cognitive Presence in an Online and Blended Community of Inquiry: Assessing Outcomes and Processes for Deep Approaches to Learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(2), 233-250. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01029.x

Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). An Empirical Verification of the Community of Inquiry Framework. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks11(1), 73-85. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v11i1.1738

Burgess, J. V. (2006). Transactional Distance Theory and Student Satisfaction with Web-based Distance Learning Courses. [Doctoral dissertation, University of West Florida]. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.537.1244&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Buskist, W., & Saville, B. K. (2001). Creating Positive Emotional Contexts for Enhancing Teaching and Learning. APS Observer19, 12-13.

Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of Adult Learners with Implications for Online Learning Design, AACE Journal, 16(2), 137-159.

Chan, J. K., & Law, K. C. (2007). Structured Blended Learning Implementation for an Open Learning Environment. Proceeding from the International Conference on Web-Based Learning, 630-640. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78139-4_55

Chanseawrassamee, S. (2012). Teaching Adult Learners English through a Variety of Activities: Perception on Games and Rewards. US-China Foreign Language10(7), 1355-1374. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/hes.v6n1p87

Chen, W., & You, M. (2007). The Differences between the Influences of Synchronous and Asynchronous Modes on Collaborative Learning Project of Industrial Design. Proceedings from the International Conference on Online Communities and Social Computing, 275-283. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73257-0_31

Cook, D. A. (2007). Web-based Learning: Pros, Cons and Controversies. Clinical Medicine7(1), 37-42. https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.7-1-37

Diaz, L. A., & Entonado, F. B. (2009). Are the Functions of Teachers in E-learning and Face-to-face Learning Environments Really Different? Educational Technology & Society12(4), 331-343.

Ebner, C., & Gegenfurtner, A. (2019). Learning and Satisfaction in Webinar, Online, and Face-to-face Instruction: A Meta-analysis. Frontiers in Education, 4, 92. https:// doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2019.00092.

ETS. (2017). TOEIC: See How the TOEIC Tests Can Help You Succeed. Retrieved from https://www.ets.org/toeic/succeed

ETS. (2019). 2018 Report on Test Takers Worldwide. Retrieved from https://www.ets.org/s/toeic/pdf/2018-report-on-test-takers-worldwide.pdf

Falloon, G. (2011). Making the Connection: Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance and Its Relevance to the Use of a Virtual Classroom in Postgraduate Online Teacher Education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education43(3), 187-209. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2011.10782569

Frey, D. (2015). Synchronous, Asynchronous and Blended, OH MY!. Learnkit. Retrieved from https://learnkit.com/2015/10/22/synchronous-asynchronous-and-blended-oh-my/.

Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online Community of Inquiry Review: Social, Cognitive, and Teaching Presence Issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks11(1), 61-72. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v11i1.1737

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2003). A Theory of Critical Inquiry in Online Distance Education. In M. G. Moore & W. G. Anderson (eds.), Handbook of Distance Education (pp. 113-127). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Garrison, R. (2000). Theoretical Challenges for Distance Education in the 21st Century: A Shift from Structural to Transactional Issues. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning1(1).

Gorsky, P., & Caspi, A. (2005). A Critical Analysis of Transactional Distance Theory. Quarterly Review of Distance Education6(1), 1-11.

Harada, S. (2016). Effects of the TOEIC Course on Students’ TOEIC Scores. The Bulletin of St. Margaret’s48, 1-17.

Hrastinski, S. (2008). Asynchronous and Synchronous E-learning. Educause Quarterly31(4), 51-55.

Huang, X. & Hsiao, E. L. (2012). Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication in an Online Environment: Faculty Experiences and Perceptions. Quarterly Review of Distance Education13(1), 15-30.

Ishikawa, Y., Akahane-Yamada, R., Smith, C., Kondo, M., Tsubota, Y., & Dantsuji, M. (2015). An EFL Flipped Learning Course Design: Utilizing Students’ Mobile Online Devices. Proceedings of the 2015 EUROCALL Conference, 261-267. Padova, Italy. http://dx.doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2015.000343

Ivankova, N. V., & Stick, S. L. (2007). Students’ Persistence in a Distributed Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership in Higher Education: A Mixed Methods Study. Research in Higher Education48(1), 93. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s11162-006-9025-4

Jun, J. (2005). Understanding Dropout of Adult Learners in E-learning. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

Kaur, R., & Sidhu, G. (2010). Learner Autonomy via Asynchronous Online Interactions: A Malaysian Perspective. International Journal of Education and Development Using ICT6(3), 88-100.

Kern, R. & Warschauer, M. (2000). Theory and Practice of Network-based Language Teaching. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice (pp. 197-209). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Koslow, A., & Piña, A. A. (2015). Using Transactional Distance Theory to Inform Online Instructional Design. Instructional Technology12(10), 63-71.

Kucuk, S., & Sahin, I. (2013). From the Perspective of Community of Inquiry Framework: An Examination of Facebook Uses by Pre-service Teachers as a Learning Environment. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET12(2), 142-156.

Lee, W., & Ng, S. (2010). Reducing Student Reticence through Teacher Interaction Strategy. ELT journal64(3), 302-313. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccp080

Maliwan, S. (2018). TOEIC Preparation Course for Aviation Personnel Development Institute Students. Kasem Bundit Journal19, 234-243.

Martin, F. M., & Parker, M. P. (2014). Use of Synchronous Virtual Classrooms: Why, Who, and How. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching10(2), 192-210.

McLester, S. (2002). Virtual Learning Takes A Front Row Seat. Technology & Learning22(8), 24-36.

Moore, M. G. (1997). Theory of Transactional Distance. In D. Keegan (Ed.), Theoretical Principles of Distance Education (pp. 22-39). London and New York: Routledge.

Ng, K. C. (2007). Replacing Face-to-Face Tutorials by Synchronous Online Technologies: Challenges and Pedagogical Implications. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning8(1). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v8i1.335

Obari, H. (2013). The Impact of Employing Mobile Technologies and PCs for Learning Coursera Online Lectures and TOEIC Practice Kit. In L. Bradley & S. Thouesny (Eds.), 20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from The Past, Looking to the Future (pp. 194-199). https://doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2013.000160

Pennings, H. J., Brekelmans, M., Sadler, P., Claessens, L. C., van der Want, A. C., & van Tartwijk, J. (2018). Interpersonal Adaptation in Teacher-Student Interaction. Learning and Instruction55, 41-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.09.005

Perveen, A. (2016). Synchronous and Asynchronous E-language Learning: A Case Study of Virtual University of Pakistan. Open Praxis8(1), 21-39. https://doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.8.1.212

Rahayu, D. (2020). Students’ E-Learning Experience through a Synchronous Zoom Web Conference System. Journal of ELT Research: The Academic Journal of Studies in English Language Teaching and Learning5(1), 68-79. https://doi.org/10.22236/JER_Vol5Issue1pp68-79

Rourke, L. (2001). Assessing Social Presence in Asynchronous Text-based Computer Conferencing. Journal of Distance Education14(2), 51-70.

Salzer, J. S. (2011). Web-based Instruction. In Innovative Teaching Strategies in Nursing and Related Health Professions. Jones & Bartlett Boston, MA. 371-394.

Sims, R. (2003). Promises of Interactivity: Aligning Learner Perceptions and Expectations with Strategies for Flexible and Online Learning. Distance Education24(1), 87-103. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587910303050

Siriboon, N. (2008). TOEIC Preparation Course at Toyota Motor Thailand: The Impact of English Language Development on Employees. [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Language Institute, Thammasat University, Thailand.

Slattery, J. M., & Carlson, J. F. (2005). Preparing an Effective Syllabus: Current Best Practices. College Teaching53(4), 159-164. https://doi.org/10.3200/CTCH.53.4.159-164

Thiele, J. E. (2003). Learning Patterns of Online Students. Journal of Nursing Education42(8), 364-366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02504714

Tolu, T. A. (2010). An Exploration of Synchronous Communication in An Online Preservice ESOL Course: Community of Inquiry Perspective. [Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida]. https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4871&context=etd

Ustati, R., & Hassan, S. S. S. (2013). Distance Learning Students’ Need: Evaluating Interactions from Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education14(2), 292-304.

Whipp, J. L., & Chiarelli, S. (2004). Self-regulation in A Web-based Course: A Case Study. Educational Technology Research and Development52(4), 5. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02504714

Zembylas, M. (2008). Adult Learners’ Emotions in Online Learning. Distance Education29(1), 71-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587910802004852

Zong, N., Li, W., & Jia, B. (2018). A Brief Discussion about the Accessibility and Usability of Web-Based Instruction in Software Design Teaching. In International Conference on E-Learning, E-Education, and Online Training (pp. 8-16). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93719-9_2

Share on facebook
Facebook
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn
Share on tumblr
Tumblr
Share on reddit
Reddit
Share on email
Email
Share on stumbleupon
StumbleUpon
Share on digg
Digg
https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/call6.5
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on tumblr
Share on digg
Share on email
Share on reddit
Share on stumbleupon
Share on vk

Orabudh Mayanondha is a Ph.D. candidate at Language Institute of Thammasat University in
Thailand majoring in English Language Teaching. Her research interests include web-based
instruction, technology in teaching, and grammar instruction. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3686-
2337

Assistant Professor Kittitouch Soontornwipast, Ed.D. is a full-time lecturer at Language Institute
of Thammasat University, Thailand. His research interests include teacher training, instructional
media, action research for English teachers, and teaching methodology. http://orcid.org/0000-
0002-0461-7775