Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 14. Number 2 June 2023                                             Pp.344-359

 Full Paper PDF  

Tertiary Indonesian EFL Learners’ Learning Style in Reading Hypermedia Material

 Erni Erni
English Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Riau, Indonesia
Corresponding Author:

 Maslawati Mohamad
Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia

 Fadly Azhar
English Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Riau, Indonesia

 Wandi Syahfutra
English Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Universitas Muhammadiyah
Riau, Indonesia


Received:03/19/2023         Accepted: 06/14/2023                Published: 06/24/2023


Technology, learning environment, and e-sources have shifted learners’ learning styles in academic reading courses. The study aimed to explore tertiary Indonesian EFL learners’ learning styles in reading hypermedia material since it benefits teachers in determining teaching approaches, assessments, and tasks in teaching reading courses. This study answered the research questions about tertiary Indonesian EFL learners’ learning styles and gender differences in their learning styles in reading hypermedia material.,   Seventy-one first-grade learners were selected randomly as the sample from the 141 learners who enrolled in the Academic Reading course. The four types of learning styles, concrete, analytical, communicative, and authority-oriented, were employed as the categories in this study. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were applied for the data analysis. The study revealed that the tertiary EFL learners’ learning styles were concrete and authority-oriented. Concrete and authority-oriented styles were the highest, the communicative style was the second, and the analytical style was the lowest. The t-test result showed no significant difference in learning styles between gender. The successful implementation of this descriptive quantitative research and the design of research instruments for learning styles contribute to expanding the research methodology in this digital era. The research result can help tertiary Indonesian EFL learners understand their learning styles. It also allows teachers to develop classroom activities, tasks, reading material, and media. Specifically, the use of hypermedia material and the changes in the learning environment mode has changed learners’ learning styles in Reading courses, which lead to a change in teachers’ teaching approaches.
Keywords: learning style, Reading, hypermedia material,  tertiary Indonesian EFL learners

Cite as:  Erni, E., Mohamad, M., Azhar, F., &  Syahfutra, W.  (2023). Tertiary Indonesian EFL Learners’ Learning Style in Reading Hypermedia Material.  Arab World English Journal, 14 (2) 344-359.


Academic Department. (2022). FKIP Universitas Riau.

Alhajri, R., Alhunaiyyan, A. A., & AlMousa, E. (2017). Understanding the impact of individual differences on learner performance using hypermedia systems. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies, 12(1), 1–18.

An, D., & Carr, M. (2017). Learning styles theory fails to explain learning and achievement: Recommendations for alternative approaches. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 410–416.

Bidabadi, F. S., & Yamat, H. (2010). Learning style preferences by Iranian EFL freshman university students. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7(C), 219–226.

Binu, P. M. (2022). The Effect of Online Interaction via Microsoft Teams Private Chat on Enhancing the Communicative Competence of Introverted Students. Arab World English Journal, 13(4), 106–114.

Borg, G. (2014). Applying Educational Research: How to Read, Do, and Use Research to Solve Problems of Practice. In lNew York and london. Longman publishing Inc.

Cohen, A. D., & Oxford, R. L. (2001). Learning Style Survey for Young Learners: Assessing Your Own Learning Style. Research Gate Publication, 1–9.

Dörnyei, Z., & Skehan, P. (2007). Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (1st ed., pp. 589–630). Blackwell Publishing.

Dunn, R., & Grims, S. A. (2001). Introduction to Learning Styles in Higher Education. In R. Dunn & S. A. Grims (Eds.), Book Review: Practical Approaches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education (2nd ed., Vol. 28, Issue 4, pp. 82–84). Bergin & Garvey.

Ehrman, M. E., Leaver, B. L., & Oxford, R. L. (2003). A brief overview of individual differences in second language learning. System, 31(3), 313–330.

Erni. (2022). Perempuan dengan Pemikiran HOTS. In A. N. Hidayati & T. Ramalia (Eds.), Perempuan Pemimpin di Perguruan Tinggi (Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 121–130). DOTPLUS Publisher.

Erni, E. (2021). Online Reading Strategy in Academic Reading by Foreign Language Learners during Covid-19 Outbreak. AL-Ishlah: Jurnal Pendidikan, 13(1), 374–386.

Erni, E., & Yamat, H. (2019). Reading in EnglishTthrough Student-Centered Approach. UKM Press.

Erni, Mohamad, M., & Azhar, F. (2023). The Development of the Inquiry Complexity Reading Strategy ( ICRS ) in Online Academic. 13(6), 1349–1359.

Hayashi, M., & Cherry, D. (2004). Japanese Students’ Learning Style Preferences in the EFL Classroom. 28, 83–93.

Huang, H., Chern, C., & Lin, C. (2009). EFL learners’ use of online reading strategies and comprehension of texts: An exploratory study. Computers and Education, 52, 13–26.

James, M. A. (2012). An Investigation of Motivation to Transfer Second Language Learning. Modern Language Journal, 96(1), 51–69.

Kadir. (2015). Statistika Terapan (2nd ed.). PT. Raja Grafindo Persada.

Keefe, J. W. (1985). Assessment of Learning Style Variables: The NASSP Task Force Model. Theory Into Practice, 24(2), 138–144.

Khatibi, M., & Khormaee, K. (2016). Learning and Personality: A Review. J. Educ. Manage. Stud, 6(4), 89–97.

Kirby, J. R. (1988). Style, Strategy, and Skill in Reading. In R. R. SCHMECK (Ed.), Perspective on Individual Differences: Learning Strategies and Learning Styles. Plenum Press.

Knowles, M. S. (1972). Innovations in teaching styles and approaches based upon adult learning. Journal of Education for Social Work, 8(2), 32–39.

Knowles, M. S. (1985). Applications in Continuing Education for the Health Professions. Mobius: A Journal for Continuing Education Professionals in the Health Sciences, 5(2), 80–100.

Kolb, D. A., & Boyatzi, R. E. (2020). Experiential Learning Theory: Previous Research and New Directions. In R. J. Sternberg & L. F. Zhang (Eds.), Perspectives on Cognitive, Learning, and Thinking Styles. (pp. 1–40). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kormos, J., & Csizér, K. (2008). Age-related differences in the motivation of learning English as a foreign language: Attitudes, selves, and motivated learning behavior. Language Learning, 58(2), 327–355.

Lai, C. (2017). Autonomous Language Learning with Technology (M. Thomas (ed.)). Bloomsbury Publishing.

Liu, F. (2012). A probe into the EFL learning style preferences of minority college students: An empirical study of Tujia EFL learners in Jishou University. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(8), 1662–1667.

Lowie, W. M., & Verspoor, M. H. (2019). Individual Differences and the Ergodicity Problem. Language Learning, 69, 184–206.

Masitowarni, S., & Haswani, F. (2020). Learner Types and Their Preferences in Learning English. Budapest International Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education (BirLE) Journal, 3(2), 777–783.

Mazlan, A. F., Mohammad, M., Kassim, R., & Erni. (2022). Online Teaching and Learning During Covid-19 Pandemic : Challenges Faced by English Teachers in Islamic Tertiary Institutions in Malaysia and Indonesia. 12(10), 2005–2013.

Mulalic, A., Shah, P. M., & Ahmad, F. (2009). Learning Style Preference of ESL Students. Asean Journal of Teaching and Learning in Hihger Education, 1(2), 9–17.

Negari, G. M., & Barghi, E. (2014). An Exploration on Iranian EFL Learners’ Learning Style Preferences. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods, 4(2), 17–24.

Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching and Learning. Heinle & Heinle Publisher.

Oxford, R. L. (2003). Language Learning Styles and Strategies : an Overview. In GALA.

Quirk, T. J. (2019). Excel for Statistics Excell2019 forrEducational and Psychological Statistics AAGuide tooSolving Practical Problems SeconddEdition.

Rainey, M. A., & Kolb, D. A. (1995). Using Experiential Learning Theory and Learning Styles in Diversity Education David A. Kolb. In R. R. Sims & S. J. Sims (Eds.), The Importance of Learning Styles : Understanding the Implications for Learning, Course Design, and Education (pp. 129–146). Greenwood Press.

Reid, J. M. (1987). The Learning Style Preferences of ESL Students. Tesol Quarterly, 21(1), 87–110.

Riazi, A., & Riasati, M. J. (2007). Language Learning Style Preferences: A Students Case Study of Shiraz EFL Institutes. Asian EFL Journal, Volume, 9(1), 97–125.

Richard, J. C. (2007). Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms. Cambridge University Press.

Robinson, D. H., Yan, V. X., & Kim, J. A. (2022). Learning Styles, Classroom Instruction, and Student Achievement.

Severiens, S. E., & Dam, G. T. M. Ten. (1994). Gender Differences in Learning Styles: A Narrative Review and Quantitative Meta-analysis. The Enabling Power of Assessment, 27, 487–501.

Shen, M. Y. (2013). Toward an understanding of technical university1 EFL learners’ academic reading difficulties, strategies, and needs. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 10(1), 70–79.

Suherman, A. (2018). Examining Relationships Between Efl Students’ Learning Style, Writing Proficiency, and Self-Assessment. ETERNAL (English, Teaching, Learning, and Research Journal), 4(2), 200–208.

Ulfatin, N., Putra, A. B. N. R., Heong, Y. M., Zahro, A., & Rahmawati, A. D. (2022). Disruptive Learning Media Integrated E-Generator Practice System to Advance Self-Efficacy Learners Levels in Era of Education 4.0. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 16(4), 4–16.

Wahab, I., & Nuraeni, N. (2020). The Analysis of Students’ Learning Style. Seltics, 3(1), 41–46.

Wang, R., Lowe, R., Newton, S., & Kocaturk, T. (2020). Task complexity and learning styles in situated virtual learning environments for construction higher education. Automation in Construction, 113, 103–148.

Willing, K. (1988). Learning Styles in Adult Migrant Education. NCRC Research Series.

Wong, L. L. ., & Nunan, D. (2011). The Learning Styles and Strategies of Effective Language Learners System, 39, 144–163.

Zazula, S. (2017). Using Authentic Material from the Real World to Teach English. Pearson.

Received: 03/19/2023
Accepted: 06/14/2023  
Published: 06/24/2023

Dr. Erni is an associate professor at the Faculty of Teachers, Riau University, Indonesia. She received her Ph.D. in TESL from  UKM Malaysia and a specialist certificate in Language Testing from SEAMEO- RELC Singapore. Her research interests are English language teaching, language assessment, and second language reading and writing.

Maslawati Mohamad is a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. She graduated from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Her main research interests are innovations in teaching and learning in the ESL context,  Reading in the ESL context, and English for Specific Purposes.

Fadly Azhar is a Professor in Evaluation and Measurement at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Riau. He graduated from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. His research interests are Evaluation and  Measurement and Productive Skills Sources.

 Wandi Syahfutra is a lecturer in the English Study Program at the Faculty of Teachers Training and Education of Universitas Muhammadiyah Riau. His research interests are reading, speaking, curriculum,  and teaching practices.