Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 11. Number4  December 2020                                           Pp.382-408
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol11no4.25 

 Full Paper PDF

 

 

Religious Expressions as Situation Bound Rituals in Iraqi Computer-Mediated
Communication

 

Rasha A. Saeed Alsabbah
Department of English Language
University of Baghdad, College of Languages
Baghdad, Iraq

 

 

Abstract :
This study aims at exploring the linguistic habits of Iraqi Arab speakers and the situations wherein Iraqis invoke religion and the lexicon of Allah in their daily online communication. Throughout this work, it was sought to answer the question whether the religious belief of Iraqis is reflected in online chats Iraqi by involving situation-bound rituals in their CMC and the functions these expressions fulfil in this communication. Although computer-mediated communication lacks nonverbal behaviour and prosodic features support the speakers’ polite intention, many researchers assert that there are many resources whereby individuals can resort to in demonstrating their solidarity. The Methods is based on examining synchronic messages exchanged on WhatsApp and Viber in four groups with the participation of 99 participants in total whose age ranged from 15 to 70 years old, with different educational qualifications and religious orientations. Social distance between the participants varied from intimate to neutral, and large. Likewise, social rank ranged from equal footing to low-high relationships and high-low relationships. The setting involved different occasions such as congratulations, greetings, farewell, thanking, offering condolences as well as receiving bad news. The findings of this research have shown that Iraqi Arabic speakers incline to enhance the politeness of their message by involving religious vocabularies that take mostly the form of supplication. Besides, the religious lexicon stands as a form of etiquette that promotes the speakers’ and the addressee’s faces. FIt is hoped that this work would lead to further studies related to religious expressions across computer mediated communication.p
Keywords: computer-mediated communication (Iraq), religion, pragmatics, politeness, speech acts, situation bound utterances

Cite as:  Alsabbah, R. A. S. (2020). Religious Expressions as Situation Bound Rituals in Iraqi Computer-Mediated Communication.  Arab World English Journal11 (4) 382-408.
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol11no4.25

References

Abdalati, H. (2010). Islam in Focus. Available at: http://www.islam-infocus.com.

Aijmer, K. (1996). Conversational Routines in English: Convention and Creativity. London: Longman.

Al-Khatib, M. (2012). Politeness in the Holy Quran: A Sociolinguistic and Pragmatic perspective. Intercultural Pragmatics, 9(4), 479-509. DOI:10.1515/ip-2012-0027

Alsabbah, R. (2017). Conceptualisations of politeness: An intercultural pragmatic study of politeness strategies in a higher education context, (Unpublished Ph.D.  thesis) The University of Salford Manchester, United Kingdom.

Al-Shalawi, H. G. (2001). Politeness strategies in Saudi ESL computer-mediated communication, (Unpublished Ph.D.  thesis). Arizona State University, United States. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/125524/.

Austin, J. L. (1975). How to do things with words: the William James lectures delivered at Harvard University in 1955, (2nd edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bear, J. (1987). Formulaic utterances and communicative competence. Journal of Human SciencesVI (2), 25-34.

Blum-Kulka, S., & Olshtain, E. (1986). Too Many Words: Length of Utterance and Pragmatic Failure. Studies in second language acquisition, 8(2), 165-179. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100006069

Bouchara, A. (2015). The role of religion in shaping politeness in Moroccan Arabic: The case of the speech act of greeting and its place in intercultural understanding and misunderstanding. Special Issue: Politeness in Africa. Journal of Politeness Research11(1),71-98. DOI:10.1515/pr-2015-0004.

 Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1978). Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. In Questions and politeness: Strategies in social interaction (pp. 56-311). Cambridge University Press.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Studies in interactional sociolinguistics, Politeness: some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bruton, J. K., & Stewart, E. C. (1995). The Gulf War: Analysis of American and Arab Cross-Cultural Encounters. Available at http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA294367

Carter, K. A. (2003). Type me how you feel: Quasi-nonverbal cues in computer-mediated communication. Etc, 60(1), 29–39. Available at: https://fordham.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=comm_facultypubs#page=32

Chairunnisa, S., & Benedictus, A. S. (2017). Analysis of emoji and emoticon usage in interpersonal communication of Blackberry messenger and WhatsApp application user. International Journal of Social Sciences and Management4(2), 120-126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3126/ijssm.v4i2.17173

Coulmas, F. (1981). Poison to Your Soul: Thanks and Apologies Contrastively Viewed. In F. Coulmas, (Ed.), Conversational Routine: Explorations in standardized communication situations and prepatterned speech (Vol. 96, pp. 69-93) The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

Davies, E., & Bentahila, A. (2012). Anglo – Arab Intercultural Communication (Blackwell handbooks in linguistics). In C. B. Paulston, S. F. Kiesling, & E. S. Rangel, (Eds.), The handbook of intercultural discourse and communication (Vol. 29, pp. 231-251). Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.

Davies, E. (1987). A Contrastive Approach to the Analysis of Politeness Formulas. Applied Linguistics, 8(1), 75-88. DOI: 10.1093/applin/8.1.75

Dorta, G. (2008). Politeness and social dynamics in chat communication. In M. Grein (Ed.), Dialogue in and between different cultures (pp. 111–25). Münster, Germany: Edda Weigand.

Eisenstein, M., & Bodman, J. (1993). Expressing gratitude in American English. In G. Kasper, & S. Blum-Kulka, S. (Ed.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 64-81). Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.

Elwood, K. (2004). Congratulations: A cross-cultural analysis of responses to another’s happy news, (25), 355-386.  Retrieved from http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/handle/2065/6097

Goffman, E. (1967). Interactional ritual. Garden City, New York: Anchor Book.

Golato, A. & Taleghani-Nikazm, C. (2006). Negotiation of face in web chats. Multilingua – Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication25(3), 293-321. DOI:10.1515/MULTI.2006.017

Green, M. (2007). Speech acts. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition ed.): Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.

Harrel, R.S., Abu-Talib, M., & Carroll W.S. (2003) A basic course in Moroccan Arabic. Washington: Georgetown University Press.

Harrison, S. (2000). Maintaining the virtual community: Use of politeness strategies in an email discussion group. In L. Pemberton (Ed.), Words on the web: Computer mediated communication (pp. 69–78). Portland, OR: Intellect Books.

Herring, S. C. (Ed.). (1996). Computer-mediated communication: Linguistic, social, and cross-cultural perspectives. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Hiemstra, G. (1982). Teleconferencing, concern for face, and organizational culture. Annals of the International Communication Association6(1), 874-904. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.1982.11678527

Holmes, J. (1986). Compliments and Compliment Responses in New Zealand English. Anthropological Linguistics, 28(4), 485-508. Available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/30028355

Huang, Y. (2004). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jucker, A. H. (2017). Speech acts and speech act sequences: Greetings and farewells in the history of American English. Studia Neophilologica89(sup1), 39-58. DOI: 10.1080/00393274.2017.1358662

Kádár, D. Z., & Haugh, M. (2013). Understanding politeness. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Kadhim, B. J. (2017). Utterances of Husseini Rituals: Situation-bound Pragmemes. International Journal of Science and Research6(3), 1220-2226. DOI: 10.21275/ART20171711

Kasper, G. (2008). Data collection in pragmatics research. In H. Spencer-Oatey, (Ed.), Culturally speaking: Managing rapport through talk across cultures (2 ed., pp. 279-303). London, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Kecskés, I. (2000). A cognitive-pragmatic approach to situation-bound utterances. Journal of Pragmatics, 32(5), 605-625. DOI:10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00063-6

Kecskes, I. (2003). Situation-bound utterances in L1 and L2. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Kecskes, I. (2007). Formulaic language in English lingua franca. Explorations in pragmatics: linguistic, cognitive and intercultural aspects1, 191-218.

Kecskes, I. (2014). Intercultural pragmatics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lakoff, R. T. (1973). The logic of politeness: Minding your p’s and q’s. In C. Corum, T. Cedric Smith-Stark, & Weiser, A. (Eds.), Papers from the 9th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society (pp. 292-305). Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Leech, G. (1983). Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.

Leech, G. (2014). The pragmatics of politeness. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Locher, M. A. (2010). Power and politeness in action: Disagreements in oral communication (Vol. 12). Germany: Walter de Gruyter.

Matisoff, J. A. (1979). Psycho-ostensive expressions in Yiddish. Philadelphia: ISHI Publications.

Morand, D. A., & Ocker, R. J. (2003, January). Politeness theory and computer-mediated communication: A sociolinguistic approach to analyzing relational messages. In 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2003. Proceedings of the (pp. 10-pp). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/HICSS.2003.117366

Morrow, J. A., & Castleton, B. (2007). The impact of globalization on the Arabic language. Intercultural Communication Studies, XVI(2), 202-212. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/download/30650950/16_John_A._Morrow___Barbara_Castleton.pdf.

Murphy, C. (2007). Inshallah. The American Scholar76(4), 14-15. Available at: https://search.proquest.com/openview/a95ee7076d1f232cea443d9ef17448a2/1.pdf?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=514

Nelson, G., Al-Batal, M., & Echols, E. (1996). Arabic and English compliment responses: Potential for pragmatic failure. Applied linguistics17(4), 411-432. DOI: 10.1093/applin/17.4.411

Okamoto, S., & Robinson, W. P. (1997). Determinants of gratitude expressions in England. Journal of Language and Social Psychology16(4), 411-433. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X970164003

Park, J. R. (2008). Linguistic politeness and face-work in computer-mediated communication. Part 2: An application of the theoretical framework. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(14), 2199–209. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.20916

Searle, J. R. (1969). Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Searle, J. R. (1975). Indirect speech acts. In P. Cole, J. L. & Morgan, (Eds.), Syntax and semantics, (Vol. 3, pp. 59-82). New York: Seminar Press.

Somantri, G. R. (2005). Memahami metode kualitatif. Makara, Sosial Humaniora9(2), 57-65. Available at: Microsoft Word – 03_METODE PENELITIAN KUALITATIF_Revisi-ybs.doc (ui.ac.id)

Taleghani‐Nikazm, C. (2012). Politeness in Computer‐Mediated Communication. The Encyclopaedia of Applied Linguistics, 1-6. DOI:10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0918

Tannen, D., & Oztek, P. C. (1981). Health to our mouths: Formulaic expressions in Turkish and Greek. In F. Coulmas, (Ed.), Conversational Routine: Explorations in standardized communication situations and prepatterned speech (Vol. 96, pp. 37-54). Netherlands: Mouton.

Vanderveken, D. (1998). On the logical form of illocutionary acts. In A. Kasher (Ed.), Pragmatics, Critical Concepts (Vol. 2, pp. 170-194). London: Routledge.

West, C. (1984). Routine complications: Troubles with talk between doctors and patients. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Westbrook, L. (2007). Chat reference communication patterns and implications: Applying politeness theory. Journal of Documentation, 63(5), 638–58. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/00220410710827736 

Yousif, N. (2003). A Discoursal Analysis of Compliments and Compliment Responding in Iraqi Conversation, (Unpublished M.A. Thesis) The University of Baghdad, Iraq.

Zaharna, R. S. (1995). Understanding cultural preferences of Arab communication patterns. Public Relations Review21(3), 241-255. DOI: 10.1016/0363-8111(95)90024-1

Share on facebook
Facebook
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn
Share on tumblr
Tumblr
Share on reddit
Reddit
Share on email
Email
Share on stumbleupon
StumbleUpon
Share on digg
Digg
 https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol11no4.25 
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on tumblr
Share on digg
Share on email
Share on reddit
Share on stumbleupon
Share on vk

Rasha A. Saeed Alsabbah is a lecturer at the university of Baghdad, College of Languages,
Baghdad, Iraq. She Obtained her BA and MA at the aforementioned college. She finished her
PhD study in 2018 at the School of Arts and Media, the university of Salford, United Kingdom.
Research interest are Semantic, discourse analysis, pragmatics. She is mainly interested in
cultural differences and the influence of culture on language use and the possible challenges
foreign language learners face in using the target language.
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1377-6783