Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 14. Number 3 September 2023                                   Pp.66-86

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Reinforcement of Gender Stereotyping in Malaysian Primary English Textbooks

 Puteri Ayufiza Asmuni
English Language Centre
University of Technology and Applied Sciences Al Musannah, Oman
Corresponding Author:


Received:02/19/2023         Accepted: 09/01/2023                 Published:09/24/2023


Many primary school students have been exposed to gender stereotyping since they were young, with educators, parents, and their peers shaping their thoughts, behaviors, and their perceptions of gender. While several previous research studies have been done on the depiction of gender-stereotyped roles in Malaysian textbooks, very little has fully explored how stereotypical gender characteristics are assigned to the male and female gender, and how reinforcement of occupational gender roles is done through images and text in Malaysian primary English textbooks. This study seeks to investigate the reinforcement of gender stereotyping in Malaysian Primary English textbooks through images and text. The study addressed the following research question: What stereotypical gender characteristics are assigned to the male and female gender through the images and text incorporated in Malaysian English Primary textbooks? Using the Thematic Analysis approach by Braun and Clarke(2006) the results show that the themes obtained from the analysis were consistent with results from previous studies, which suggested that there was a biased characterization of the male and female gender, and those female characters were still underrepresented leading to the reinforcement of stereotypical gender roles. This study sheds new light on the reinforcement of gender stereotyping and provides important insights into the creation and development of primary English textbooks in Malaysia.
Keywords:  gender stereotyping, images, primary English textbooks, textbooks, texts

Cite as: Asmuni, P. A. (2023). Reinforcement of Gender Stereotyping in Malaysian Primary English Textbooks.
Arab World English Journal, 14 (3). 66-86.  DOI:


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Received: 02/19/2023
Accepted: 09/01/2023  
Published: 09/24/2023

Puteri Ayufiza Asmuni is an English lecturer at University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Al Musannah (UTAS-A), Oman. She holds an M.A. in Applied Linguistics, a B.A. in English, and professional English language teaching certificates of TEFL and TESL. Her research areas include second language acquisition (SLA), curriculum development and applied linguistics.