Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 11. Number4. December 2020                                             Pp. 236- 253

Full Paper PDF


Reading Assessment: A Case Study of Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Evaluative


Abdelbassed Anes BOUBRIS
Faculty of Sciences, Tlemcen University
Tlemcen, Algeria

Faculty of Languages and Literatures, Tlemcen University
Tlemcen, Algeria





Research has revealed that teachers’ thinking processes highly influence their instructional and evaluative behaviors. Understanding teachers’ beliefs and theoretical orientations about reading are more than necessary to rethink reading instruction and assessment. The present paper reviews a case study conducted at the Department of English, Tlemcen University, Algeria. The study looked at teachers’ beliefs and theoretical orientations regarding reading assessment and its effect on EFL learners’ comprehension ability. It examines the correspondence between reading teachers’ theoretical orientations and classroom reading assessment. This study included 20 teachers and 120 students. Data collection procedures included questionnaires and classroom observations. Data analysis exposed the congruence between teachers’ beliefs about reading and classroom reading assessment. Moreover, standardized classroom reading assessment negatively impacted learners’ comprehension ability and reading motivation. The discussions underscored the importance of alternative reading assessment methods such as portfolios, which represent genuine and effective language learning strategies according to modern research.
Keywords: alternative assessment, evaluative practices, reading assessment, reading models, teachers’ beliefs, Tlemcen University

Cite as:   BOUBRIS, A. A., & HADDAM, F. (2020). Reading Assessment: A Case Study of Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Evaluative Practices.  Arab World English Journal11 (4) 236- 253.


Abdi, H.,&Asadi, B. (2015). A Synopsis of Researches on Teachers’ and Students’ Beliefs about Language Learning.International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature3(4), 104-114.

Ajideh, P., & Nourdad, N. (2012). The Effect of Dynamic Assessment on EFL Reading Comprehension in Different Proficiency Levels.Language Testing in Asia2(4), 101-122.

Alderson, J.C. (2000). Assessing Reading.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anderson, L.M., & Holt-Reynolds, D. (1995). Prospective Teachers’ Beliefs and Teacher Education Pedagogy: Research Based on a Teacher Educator’s Practical Theory (Research Report 95-6). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research in Teacher Learning, Michigan State University.

Asselin, M. (2000). Confronting Assumptions: Pre-service Teachers’ Beliefs about Reading and Literature. Reading Psychology21(1), 31–55.DOI: 10.1080/027027100278338

Attardo, S., & Brown, S. (2005). What’s the Use of Linguistics? Pre-Service English Teachers’ Beliefs towards Language Use and Variation. Applied Linguistics and Language Teacher Education, 91–102. DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-2954-3_6

Basturkmen, H. (2012). Review of Research into the Correspondence between Language Teachers’ Stated Beliefs and Practices.System40(2), 282–295.

Basturkmen, H., Loewen, S., & Ellis, R. (2004). Teachers’ Stated Beliefs about Incidental Focus on Form and their Classroom Practices. Applied Linguistics25(2), 243–272.

Bean, T.W. & Zulich, J. (1991). A Case Study of Three Preservice Teachers’ Beliefs about Content Area Reading through the Window of Student-professor Dialogue Journals. In C.K. Kinzer & D.J. Leu (Eds.), Literacy Research, Theory, and Practice: Views from Many Perspectives (pp. 463-474). Chicago, IL: National Reading Conference.

Bell, T. (2001). Extensive Reading: Speed and Comprehension. The Reading Matrix1(1), 1–13.

Bisland, B., O’Connor, E., & Malow-Iroff, M. (Eds.). (2009). Proceeding from the College and University Faculty Assembly of the National Council for the Social Studies. Atlanta, GA.

Bliem, C.L. & Davinroy, K.H. (1997). Teachers’ Beliefs about Assessment and Instruction in Literacy. Los Angeles, CA:National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).

Borg, S. (2003). Teacher Cognition in Language Teaching: A Review of Research on what Language Teachers Think, Know, Believe and Do. Language Teaching36(02), 81–109. DOI: 10.1017/S0261444803001903

Breen, M.P., Hird, B., Milton, M., Oliver, R., & Thwaite, A. (2001). Making Sense of Language Teaching: Teachers’ Principles and Classroom Practices. Applied Linguistics22(4), 470−501.

Bullock, D. (2010). Learner Self-assessment: An Investigation into Teachers’ Beliefs. ELT Journal65(2), 114– 125.

Burgess, T., Turvey, A., & Quarshire, R. (2000). Teaching Grammar: Working with Student Teacher. Changing English7(1), 7-21.

Burns, A. (1992). Teacher Beliefs and Their Influence on Classroom Practice. Prospect7(3), 56-66.

Busch, D. (2010). Pre-service Teacher Beliefs about Language Learning: The Second Language Acquisition Course as an Agent for Change. Language Teaching Research14(3), 318–337, DOI: 10.1177/1362168810365239

Butler, S.M., & McMunn, N.D. (2006).A Teacher’s Guide to Classroom Assessment: Understanding and Using Assessment to Improve Student Learning. Greensboro, NC: Jossey-Bass.

Carlsen, W.S. (1999). Domains of Teacher Knowledge. In J. Gess-Newsome & N.G. Lederman (Eds.), Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Construct and its Implications for science education (pp. 113–144). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Chang, C. (2014). Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices about ESP Assessment: A Phenomenographic Study. The Journal of Teaching English for Specific and Academic Purposes2(4), 625-645.

Charvade, M.R., Jahandar, S., & Khodabandehlou, M. (2012). The Impact of Portfolio Assessment on EFL Learners’ Comprehension Ability. English Language Teaching, 5(7), 129-139. DOI:10.5539/elt.v5n7p129

Cherniak, C., Nisbett, R., & Ross, L. (1983). Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings of Social Judgment. The Philosophical Review, 92(3), 462.

Chou, Y. (2008). Exploring the Reflection of Teachers’ Beliefs about Reading Theories and Strategies on Their Classroom Practices.Feng Chia Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences16(01), 183-216.

Cummins, C.L., Cheek, E.H., & Lindsey, J.D. (2004). The Relationship between Teachers’ Literacy Beliefs and Their Instructional Practices: A Brief Review of the Literature for Teacher Educators. E-Journal of Teaching and Learning in Diverse Settings1(2), 175-188.

Davies, F. (1995). Introducing Reading. London: Penguin English.

Day, R.R. (2015). Extending Extensive Reading.Reading in a Foreign Language, 27(01), 294-301.

Douglas, H.B. (2003). Language Assessment Principle and Classroom Practices: Assessment Concept and Issue. London: Pearson Education.

Fang, Z. (1996). A Review of Research on Teacher Beliefs and Practices.Educational Research38(1), 47-65.

Faour, B. (2003). Early childhood teachers in Lebanon: Beliefs and practices. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Leicester, School of education, UK.

Fletcher, J.M. (2006). Measuring Reading Comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading10(3), 323-330.

Ford, M.I. (1994). Teachers’ Beliefs about Mathematical Problem Solving in the Elementary School. School Science and Mathematics94(6), 314-322.

Froese, V. (Ed.) (1990). Whole Language Practice and Theory. Scarborough ONT: Prentice-Hall Canada.

Gilakjani, P.A. & Sabouri, N.B. (2017). Teachers’ Beliefs in English Language Teaching and Learning: A Review of the Literature. English Language Teaching10(4), 78-86.

Guotao, Z. & Xiaoming, L. (1997). Monograph of Educational Psychology. Beijing: China Audit Press.

Haney, J.J., Czerniak, C.M., & Lumpe, A.T. (1996). Teacher Beliefs and Intentions Regarding the Implementation of Science Education Reform Strands. Journal of Research in Science Teaching33(9), 971–993.

Hapsari, C.T., & Kusumawardani, R. (Eds.). (2017). Proceeding of the 1stICoLLiT:The 1st International Conference on Language, Literature and Teaching. Surakarta, Java: UMS Indonesia.

Harcarik, M. (2009).Fifth-Grade Teachers’ Social Studies Knowledge and Beliefs and Their Relationship to Classroom Practices, (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). The University of Florida, USA.

Huba, M.,& Freed, J. (2000). Learner-centered Assessment on College Campuses: Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning. Community College Journal of Research and Practice24(9), 759–766.

Jamalzadeh, M., &Shahsavar, Z. (2015). The Effects of Contextual Factors on Teacher’s Beliefs and Practices. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences192, 166–171.

Johnson, K.E. (1992). The Relationship between Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices during Literacy Instruction for Non-Native Speakers of English.Journal of Reading BehaviorXXIV(1), 83–108.

Johnson, K.E. (1994). The Emerging Beliefs and Instructional Practices of Pre-Service English as Second Language Teachers.Teaching and Teacher Education10(4), 439-452.

Jones J.F. & Fong, P. M. (2007). The Impact of Teachers’ Beliefs and Educational Experiences on EFL Classroom Practices in Secondary Schools. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching17(01), 27-47.

Judson, E. (2006). How Teachers Integrate Technology and their Beliefs about
Learning: Is there a Connection? Journal of Technology and Teacher Education,
14(3), 581-597.

Kader, C.C.C. (2009). Teaching Reading in the Foreign Language Classroom.VIDYA28(1), 105-112.

Khader, F.R. (2012). Teachers’ Pedagogical Beliefs and Actual Classroom Practices in Social Studies Instruction.American International Journal of Contemporary Research2(1), 73-92.

Knowles, J.G. (1992). Models for Understanding Preservice and Beginning Teachers’ Biographies: Illustrations from Case Studies. In I.F. Goodson (Ed.), Studying Teachers’ Lives (pp. 99-152). London: Falmer Press.

Kostopoulou, A. (2005). Teachers’ Beliefs about the Teaching of Reading in Early Years Settings, (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).University of Warwick, Institute of Education, UK.

Kunt, N. (1997). Anxiety and Beliefs about Language Learning: A Study of Turkish-speaking University Students Learning English in North Cyprus, (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Texas, Austin, USA.

Kuzborska, I. (2011). Links between Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices and Research on Reading.Reading in a Foreign Language23(1), 102-128.

Lee, I. (2008). Ten Mismatches between Teachers’ Beliefs and Written Feedback Practice.ELT Journal63(1), 13–22. DOI: 10.1093/elt/ccn010

Li, X. (2012).The Role of Teachers’ Beliefs in the Language Teaching-Learning Process.Theory and Practice in Language Studies2(7), 1397-1402.

Li, L. (2013). The Complexity of Language Teachers’ Beliefs and Practice: One EFL Teacher’s Theories. The Language Learning Journal41(2), 175–191.

Longberger, R.B. (1992). The Belief Systems and Instructional Choices of Preservice Teachers. Yearbook of the College Reading Association14(01), 71–78.

Meyerson, M.J. (1993). Exploring Reading Instructional Decisions through a Reflective Activity: A First Step in the Change Process.Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation4(2), 153–168.

Morrow, L. M., Strickland, D. S., & Woo, D. G. (1998). Literacy Instruction in Halfday and Whole-day Kindergarten. Newark, DE: International Reading Association Inc. & the National Reading Conference.

Naashia, M. (2006). An Exploratory Study of the Interplay between Teachers’ Beliefs, Instructional Practices and Professional Development, (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Auckland, NZ.

Navarrete, C., Wilde, J., Nelson, C., Martinez, R., & Hargett, G. (1990). Informal Assessment in Educational Evaluation: Implications for Bilingual Education Programs. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

Olson, J.R.,& Singer, M. (1994).Examining Teacher Beliefs, Reflective Change and the Teaching of Reading.Reading Research and Instruction34(01), 97–110.

Oscarson, M. (1997).Self-assessment of Foreign and Second Language Proficiency.Encyclopedia of Language and Education: Language Testing and Assessment7(1), 175–187.

O’Malley, J.M., & Pierce, L.V. (1996).Authentic Assessment for English Teachers: Practical Approaches for Teachers. London: Addison-Wesley.

Pajares, M.F. (1992). Teachers’ Beliefs and Educational Research: Cleaning up a Messy Construct. Review of Educational Research62(3), 307-332.

Palak, D. & Walls R.T. (2009) Teachers’ Beliefs and Technology Practices, Journal of Research on Technology in Education41(4), 417-441. DOI: 10.1080/15391523.2009.10782537

Paris, S.G., Wasik, B.A., & Turner, J.C. (Eds.). (1991). The Development of Strategic Readers (2). New York: Longman.

Pedersen, S. & Liu, M. (2003). Teachers’ Beliefs about Issues in the Implementation of a Student-centered Learning Environment.Educational Technology Research and Development51(2), 57–76. DOI: 10.1007/BF02504526

Pehkonen, E., & Pietilä, A. (2003). On Relationships between Beliefs and Knowledge in Mathematics Education. Paper Presented at the 3rd CERME 3: Third Conference of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education. Bellaria, Italy.

Phillips, M. (2009). Beginning Teacher Beliefs and Wise Practices: A Case Study of a High School Social Studies Teacher, (Doctoral dissertation). University of Florida, USA.

Phipps, S. & Borg, S. (2009). Exploring Tensions between Teachers’ Grammar Teaching Beliefs and Practices. System37(3), 380–390.

Porter, C., & Cleland, J. (1995).The Portfolio as a Learning Strategy. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton /Cook Publishers Heinemann

Powers, S.W., Zippay, C., & Butler, B. (2006). Investigating Connections between Teacher Beliefs and Instructional Practices with Struggling Readers.Reading Horizons47(2), 121-157.

Putnam, R.T.,&Borko, H. (2000). What Do New Views of Knowledge and Thinking Have to Say about Research on Teacher Learning? Educational Researcher29(1), 4-15.

Raymond, A.M. (1997). Inconsistency between a Beginning Elementary School Teacher’s Mathematics Beliefs and Teaching Practice. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education28(5), 550-576.

Redondo, M. (1997).Reading Models in Foreign Language Teaching. Revista Alicantina Estudios Ingless10, 139-161.

Richards, J.C. (1994). Teacher Thinking and Foreign Language Teaching.The Language Teacher, 18(8), 31-34.

Richards, J.C., & Lockhart, C. (1994). Reflective Teaching in Second Language Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, J.C., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richardson, V., Anders, P., Tidwell, D., & Lloyd, C. (1991). The Relationship between Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices in Reading Comprehension Instruction. American Educational Research Journal, 28(3), 559-86.

Rueda, R., & Garcia, E. (1994).Teachers’ Beliefs about Reading Assessment with Latino Language Minority Students (Research Report No. 9). Washington, DC: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning, Santa Cruz, CA.

Rumelhart, D.E. (1977). Understanding and Summarizing Brief Stories. In D. Laberge, & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Basic Processes in Reading: Perception and Comprehension (pp. 265-303). Erlbaum

Serafini, F. (2010).Classroom Reading Assessments: More Efficient Ways to View and Evaluate Your Readers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Shapiro, J., & Kibley, D. (1990). Closing the Gap between Theory and Practice: Teacher Beliefs, Instructional Decision and Critical Thinking.Reading Horizons31(1), 59-73.

Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Harvard Educational Review57(1), 1–23.

Skott, J. (2015). The Promises, Problems, and Prospects of Research on Teachers’ Beliefs. In H. Fives, & M. G. Gill (Eds.), International Handbook of Research on Teachers’ Beliefs (pp. 13-30). Routledge: Educational Psychology Handbook Series.

Škudienė, V. (2002). Comparison of Reading Models, their Application to the Classroom and their Impact on Comprehension. Studies about Languages2(1), 94-98.

Smarkola, C. (2008). Efficacy of a Planned Behavior Model: Beliefs that Contribute to Computer Usage Intentions of Student Teachers and Experienced Teachers. Computers in Human Behavior24(3), 1196–1215. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2007.04.005

Sparks, J. R. (2012). Language/Discourse Comprehension and Understanding. School of Education and Social Policy. In N. Seel (Ed), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 1713-1717). Heidelberg: Springer.

Susser, B., & Robb, T.N. (1990). EFL Extensive Reading Instruction: Research and Procedure. JALT Journal12(2), 161-185.

Underwood, P.R. (2012). Teacher Beliefs and Intentions Regarding the Instruction of English Grammar under National Curriculum Reforms: A Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective. Teaching and Teacher Education28(6), 911–925. DOI: 10.1016/j.tate.2012.04.004

Valencia, C. (1990). A Portfolio Approach to Classroom Reading Assessment: The Whys, the Whats and Hows. The Reading Teacher1(01), 338-340.

Wang, S. (1996). A Study of Chinese English Majors’ Beliefs about Language Learning and Their Learning Strategies. Dissertation Abstracts International57(12), 5021.

Wang, W.  (Ed.). (2006, November 28-30). Proceedings from the APERA conference: The Asia-Pacific Educational Research Association Conference. University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Wilson, E.K., Konopak, B.C., & Readence, J.E. (1991). Examining Content Area Reading Beliefs, Decisions, and Instruction: A Case Study of an English Teacher. In C.K. Kinzer & D.J. Leu (Eds.), Literacy Research, Theory, and Practice: Views from Many Perspectives (pp. 475-482). Chicago, IL: National Reading Conference.

Yook, C.M. (2010). Korean Teachers’ Beliefs about English Language Education and their Impacts upon the Ministry of Education-initiated Reforms, (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.

Digg 7748

Dr. Abdelbassed Anes BOUBRIS is an assistant professor in ESP at the Faculty of Sciences,
Tlemcen University; Algeria. His research interests include assessment, English for Specific
Purposes, and teacher education and professional development.