Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 12. Number2 June 2021                                                    Pp. 521- 539
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol12no2.35

Full Paper PDF

Pragma-linguistic and Socio-pragmatic Transfer among Iraqi Female EFL Learners in
Refusing Marriage Proposals
 

Tabarek Ali Qassim
Department of English, College of Education for Women
University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Corresponding Author: tabarek269@gmail.com

Nawal Fadhel Abbas
Department of English, College of Education for Women
University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Fatima Falih Ahmed
English Department, Midlands Technical College
School of English and the Humanities, West Columbia, South Carolina, USA

Sura Hameed
MATC- Milwaukee Area Technical College
Lead and Stem Pathway advisor, USA

Received: 5/4/2021                    Accepted: 6/24/2021                  Published: 6/28/2021

 

Abstract:
In the framework of this study, the phenomenon of transfer is probed pragma-linguistically and socio-linguistically concerning marriage situations among Iraqi EFL learners. The study also strives to look at the refusal strategies most commonly employed by Iraqi female English as a foreign Language (EFL) learners compared to their counterparts, American native speakers of English. The study involved 70 female participants who answered a Discourse Completion Task (DCT), which contained ten marriage proposals to be refused. Each situation entailed refusal of a person from a higher, an equal, and lower status. The researchers adapted Beebe, Takahashi, and Uliss Weltz’s (1990) taxonomy of refusal for analyzing the data comprehensively. The study’s findings indicated that Iraqi female EFL learners followed similar patterns of refusing marriage situations to American speakers. The most prevalent strategies used by the two groups were “reasons/ excuses and explanations,” followed by “statements of regrets,” and then “non-performative statements” with slight variation in frequency. However, the Iraqi learners’ native language and culture affected how they formulated their refusal; hence they manifested pragma-linguistic and socio-pragmatic transfer in particular areas. The areas of pragma-linguistic transfer included the literal translation of words, expressions, and structures into their refusal in English. As for the socio-pragmatic areas, the transfer occurred in certain Arabic culture features like elaboration, exaggeration, repetition, endearing terms, and many others in expressing the target language, English.
Keywords: Beebe et al.’s taxonomy, Iraqi EFL learners, marriage proposals, pragma-linguistic transfer, refusal, socio-pragmatic transfer

Cite as: Qassim, T. A., Abbas, N. F., Ahmed, F. F., & Hameed, S.  (2021). Pragma-linguistic and Socio-pragmatic Transfer among Iraqi
Female EFL Learners in Refusing Marriage Proposals.  Arab World English Journal, 12 (2) 521- 539.
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol12no2.35

References

Abbas, N. F. (2013). Positive Politeness and Social Harmony in Literary Discourse. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 2(3), 186-195.

Al-Eryani, A. A. (2007), Refusal Strategies by Yemeni EFL Learners. The Asian EFL Journal, 9(2), 19-34.

Al-Issa, A. (1998). socio-pragmatic transfer in the performance of refusals by Jordanian EFL learners: Evidence and motivating factors, (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). University of Pennsylvania, Indiana.

Alrefaee, Y., & Al-Ghamdi, N. (2019). Refusals among Yemeni EFL learners: A study of negative pragmatic transfer and its relation to proficiency. Asian EFL Journal Research Articles, 5(1), 191-214.

Al-Shalawi, H. (1997). Refusal strategies in Saudi and American culture, (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Michigan University, USA.

Al-Shboul, Y., & Huwari, I. (2016). A comparative study of Jordanina Arabic and American English refusal strategies. British Journal of English Linguistics, 4(3), 50-65. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/deref/http%3A%2F%2Fwww.eajournals.org%2F

Al-Shboul, Y., & Maros, M. (2012). An Intercultural Study of Refusal Strategies in English between Jordanian EFL and Malay ESL Postgraduate Students. The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 18(3), 29-39.

Beebe, L. & Cummings, M. (1996). Natural speech act versus written questionnaire data: How data collection method affects speech act performance. In S. Gass, & J. Neu, (Eds.), Speech Acts Across Cultures (pp. 65-88). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Beebe, L., Takahashi, T., & Uliss-Weltz, R. (1990). Pragmatic transfer in ESL refusals. In Scarcella, R. C., Andersen, E. S., & Krashen S. D. (Eds.), Developing Communicative Competence in Second Language (pp. 55-73). New York: Newbury House.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Universals in Language Usage: Politeness Phenomena. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cenoz, J. (2003). The Intercultural Style Hypothesis: L1 and L2 in Requesting Behavior. In V. Cook (ed.), Effects of the Second Language on the First (pp. 62-80). DOI:10.21832/9781853596346-006

Chen, H. (1996). Cross-cultural comparison of English and Chinese metapragmatics in refusal, (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Indiana University, USA.

Dendenne, B. (2017). Investigating pragmatic transfer in interlanguage apologies performed by Algerian EFL learners. The Journal of the Faculty of Letters and Languages 20, 17-41. University of Biskra, Algeria.

Gass, S. M., & Houck, N. (1999). Interlanguage Refusals: A Cross-Cultural Study of Japanese-English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Huwari, I. F., & Al-Shboul, Y. (2015). A Study on the Perception of Jordanian EFL Learners’ Pragmatic Transfer of Refusals. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 6(1), 46-54.

Izadi, A., & Ziliae, F. (2014). Refusal Strategies in Persian. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 25(2), 246-264. DIO: 10.1111/ijal.12065

Kasper, G. (1992). Pragmatic Transfer. Second Language Research, 8(3), 203-231.

Kiok, D. (1995). Transfer of pragmatic competence and suggestions in Spanish foreign language learning. In S. Gass, & Neu, J. (Eds.), Speech Acts across Cultures (pp. 257-281). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics Across Cultures: Applied Linguistics and Language Teachers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Leech, G. (2014). The Pragmatics of Politeness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maeshiba, N., Yoshinaga, N., Kasper, G., & Ross, S. (2006). Transfer and proficiency in interlanguage apologizing. University of Hawai’i Working Papers in ESL, 12(1), 63-98.

Majeed, R. M. (2021). A Pragmatic Analysis of Personal Deixes in Lyrical Poetry: Ezra Pound’s Lyrics “Girl” and “A Virginal.” Journal of the College of Education for Women, 32(1), 18-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36231/coedw.v32i1.1475

Moaveni, H. T. (2014). A study of refusal strategies by American and International students at an American university, (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Minnesota State University, Mankato.

Mohammed, H. N., & Abbas, N. F. (2016). Impoliteness in Literary Discourse: A Pragmatic Study. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 5(2), 76-82.

Nailah, N. (2016). Politeness strategies used by the main characters of “Transformer: Age of extinction” movie, (Master’s thesis). Universitas Islam Negeri, Maulana Malik Ibrahim. http://etheses.uin-malang.ac.id/id/eprint/3598.

Nelson, G., Al Batal, M., & EL Bakary, W. (2002). Directness vs. Indirectness: Egyptian Arabic and US English Communication Style. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(1), 39-57.

Nureddeen, F. A. (2008). Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Apology Strategies in Sudanese Arabic. Journal of Pragmatics, 40(2), 279-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2007.11.001

Patai, R. (1983). The Arab mind. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Phuong, T. M. (2006). Cross-cultural pragmatics: Refusals of requests by Australian native speakers of English and Vietnamese learners of English, (Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation). The University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Putri, Y. K. (2014). Strategies of refusing in Ugly Betty Tv. series: A pragmatic study. Jurnal Al-Tsaqafa volume 11(2), 211-229.

Salman, A. R., & Ebadi, S. (2015). Exploring Pragmatic Transfer in Iraqi EFL Learners’ Compliment Responses. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(2), 1-20. Available at www.iaajs.com/jal.

Saud, W. I. (2019). Refusal Strategies of Saudi EFL Undergraduate Students. Arab World English Journal, (Special Issue), 96-114. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/efl1.8.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2012). Research methods for business students. Pearson Education Ltd., Harlow.

Shouby, E. (1951). The Influence of the Arabic Language on the Psychology of the Arabs. Middle East Journal, 5, 298-299.

Spencer-Oatey. H. (2008). Culturally speaking: Culture, communication and politeness theory. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Steven, P. B. (1993). The Pragmatics of “no!”: Some Strategies in English and Arabic. Ideal, 6, 87-112.

Eldin, K. T. (2018). Pragmatic Transfer in Sudanese University Students’ Requests. Lingüística  En  Lared. Available at www.linred.com.

Takahashi, T., & Beebe, L. M. (1987). The Development of Pragmatic Competence by Japanese Learners of English. JALT Journal, 8(2), 131-155.

Thomas, J. (1983), Cross-Cultural Pragmatic Failure. Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 91-112.

Yamagashira, H. (2001). Pragmatic Transfer in Japanese ESL refusal. Retrieved from https://warp.da.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/285148/www.k-junshin.ac.jp/juntan/libhome/bulletin/No31/Yamagashira.pdf

Share on facebook
Facebook
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn
Share on tumblr
Tumblr
Share on reddit
Reddit
Share on email
Email
Share on stumbleupon
StumbleUpon
Share on digg
Digg
Received: 5/4/2021 
Accepted: 6/24/2021   
Published: 6/28/2021 
https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol12no2.35
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on tumblr
Share on digg
Share on email
Share on reddit
Share on stumbleupon
Share on vk

Tabarek Ali Qassim is an M.A. student in the department of English, College of Education for Women in the University of Baghdad. Her major is Linguistics and she has interests in several fields within Linguistics including Applied Linguistics. You can reach her at: tabarek269@gmail.com. My ORCID is https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2924-639X.

Nawal Fadhil Abbas got her PhD in English Language and Linguistics in 2014 from the school of Humanities, University of Sains Malaysia. Now she is an assistant professor teaching at the College of Education for Women, University of Baghdad. Her field of study is Semantics and Pragmatics. Other fields of interest include Critical Discourse Analysis, Critical Stylistics and Corpus Linguistics. You can reach her publications at: Nawal F. Abbas – Google Scholar Citations.

Fatima Falih Ahmed has her master degree in English literature from University of Baghdad. She is an instructor at English Department, Midlands Technical College, School of English and the Humanities, West Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Sura Hameed has a master degree in Applied Linguistics at the University of Baghdad. She is an instructor at MATC Milwaukee Area Technical College, Lead and Stem Pathway advisor, USA.