Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 11. Number4 December 2020 Pp.3-14
Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Emotional Intelligence of EFL Teachers in Saudi
Arabia: Implications to Teaching Performance and Institutional Effectiveness
Joel C. Meniado
SEAMEO Regional Language Centre
30 Orange Grove Road, 258352 Singapore
Many studies have extensively investigated the antecedents, consequences, and relationships of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) in corporate and industrial settings, but not in educational contexts particularly in the field of English language teaching. To expand the existing literature in OCB and EI, this study investigated the levels and relationship of OCB and EI of college English teachers in an English language institute in the western region of Saudi Arabia. It tried to answer the following research questions: 1) What is the level of OCB and EI of the respondents? 2) Is there a significant relationship between the respondents’ OCB and EI? Using descriptive correlational research design with adapted organizational citizenship behavior and emotional intelligence scales as data gathering instruments, this study found that the respondents had very high level of OCB. Specifically, the findings revealed that the OCBs under altruism, civic virtue, and compliance dimensions were rated as very high while those under sportsmanship and courtesy were assessed as high. Findings also indicated that the EFL teachers had high level of EI. Lastly, the study proved that there was a significant, positive relationship between the respondents’ organizational citizenship behaviors and emotional intelligence. Based on the findings, the study concludes that the respondents have the potential to excel in their job and are able to contribute to overall institutional effectiveness. This asset should be enriched and sustained by implementing more relevant OCB/EI-friendly policies and practices that support conducive school climate, transformational leadership, and emotional well-being.
Keywords: EFL teachers, emotional intelligence, English language teaching in Saudi Arabia, organizational citizenship behavior, teaching performance
Cite as: Meniado, J. C. (2020). Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Emotional Intelligence of EFL Teachers in Saudi Arabia: Implications to Teaching Performance and Institutional Effectiveness. Arab World English Journal, 11 (4)3-14.
Bighami, M.K., Soltani, H.K., Panah, M., & Abdi, F. (2013). The relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior: Testing the mediating effect of job satisfaction. Organization Behavior Studies Quarterly, 2(3), 167-182. Retrieved from http://obs.sinaweb.net/article_12071.html
Bracket, M.A, Rivers, S.E., Shiffman, S., Lerner, N., & Salovey, P. (2006). Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: A comparison of self-report and performance measures of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(4), 780-795. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2060
Chehrazi, S., Shakib, M.H., Azad, M.H.A. (2014). A study on the relationship between emotional intelligence, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Management Science Letters, 4, 1103-1106. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2014.5.022
Curci, A., Lanciano, T., & Soleti, E. (2014). Emotions in the classroom: The role of teachers’ emotional intelligence ability in predicting students’ achievement. American journal of Psychology, 127(4), 431-445. https://doi.org/10.5406/amerjpsyc.127.4.0431
De Geus, C.J.C., & Ingrams, A., Tummers, L., & Pandey, S.K. (2020). Organizational citizenship behavior in the public sector: A systematic literature review and future research agenda. Public Administration Review, 80(2), 259-270. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/puar.13141
Fernandez-Abascal, E.G., & Martin-Diaz, M.D. (2015). Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(317), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.000317
Fernandez-Abascal, E.G., & Martin-Diaz, M.D. (2019). Relations between dimensions of emotional intelligence, specific aspects of empathy, and non-verbal sensitivity. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1066), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01066
Ghanizadeh, A., & Moafian, F. (2010). The role of EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence in their success. ELT Journal, 64(4), 424-435. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccp084
Goleman, D, & Boyatzis, R.E. (2017, February 6). Difficult conversations: Emotional intelligence has 12 elements. Which do you need to work on? Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2017/02/emotional-intelligence-has-12-elements-which-do-you-need-to-work-on
Gong, Z., Chen, Y., & Wang, Y. (2019). The influence of emotional intelligence on job burnout and job performance: Mediating effect of psychological capital. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(2707), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02707
Gutierrez-Moret, M., Ibanez-Martinez, R., Aguilar-Moya, R., & Vidal-Infer, A. (2016). Assessment of emotional intelligence in a sample of prospective secondary education teachers. Journal of Education for Teaching, 42(2), 123-134. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2016.1143144.
Hazzi, O.O. (2018). Organizational citizenship behavior: A holistic review. In A. Farazmand, (ed.), Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance (pp. 1-12). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_3677-1
Issah, M. (2018). Change leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. SAGE Open, 8(3), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018800910
Jacobs, S., Kemp, A., & Mitchell, J. (2008). Emotional intelligence: Hidden ingredient for emotional health for teachers. Africa Education Review, 5(1), 131-143. https://doi.org/10.1080/18146620802144842.
Kocoglu, Z. (2011). Emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy: A study of Turkish EFL pre-service teachers. Teacher Development: An International Journal of Teachers’ Professional Development, 15(4), 471-484. https://doi.org/10.1080/13664530.2011. 642647
Mallick, E., Pradhan, R.K., Tewari, H.R., & Jena, L.K. (2014). Organizational citizenship behaviour, job performance and HR practices: A relational perspective. Management and Labour Studies, 39(4), 449-460. https://doi.org/10.1177/0258042X15578023
Mertler, C.A. (2019). Introduction to educational research (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2017). Are the emotionally intelligent good citizens or counterproductive? A meta-analysis of emotional intelligence and its relationships with organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 144–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.015
Miao, C., Humphrey, R.H., & Qian, S. (2020). The cross-cultural moderators of the influence of emotional intelligence on organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 31(2), 213-233. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21385
Mohamad, M., & Jais, J. (2016). Emotional intelligence and job performance: A study among Malaysian teachers. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 674-682. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(16)00083-6.
O’Boyle, E.H., Humphrey, R.H., Pollack, J.M., Hawyer, T.H., & Story, P.A. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(5), 788-818. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.714
O’connor, P.J., Hill, A., Kaya, M., & Martin, B. (2019). The measurement of emotional intelligence: A critical review of literature and recommendations for researchers and practitioners. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1116), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg. 2019. 01116
Organ, D.W. (2018). Organizational citizenship behavior: Recent trends and developments. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 80, 17.1-17.12. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032117-104536
Pekaar, K.A., Van der Linden, D, Bakker, A.B., & Born, M.P. (2017). Emotional intelligence and job performance: The role of enactment and focus on others’ emotions. Human Performance, 30(2-3), 135-153. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2017.1332630.
Pickford, H.C., & Joy, G. (2016). Organisational citizenship behaviours: Definitions and dimensions. Said Business School WP 2016-31. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2893021
Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Moorman, R.H. and Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational Leader Behaviors and their Effects on Followers’ Trust in Leader, Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843(90)90009-7
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9(3), 185-211. https://doi.org/10.2190/DUGG-P24E-52WK-6CDG
Schutte, N. S., et al., (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(2), 167-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00001-4
Serrat, O. (2017). Knowledge solutions: Tools, methods, and approaches to drive organizational performance. Philippines: Asian Development Bank. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0983-9
Somech, A., & Oplatka, I. (2015). Organizational citizenship behavior in schools: Examining the impact and opportunities within educational systems. Oxford: Routledge.
Turnipseed, D.L. (2017). Emotional intelligence and OCB: The moderating role of work locus of control. The Journal of Social Psychology, 158(3), 322-336. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2017.1346582
Turnipseed, D.L., & Vandewaa, E.A. (2012). Relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior. Psychological Reports, 110(3), 899-914. https://doi.org/10.2466/01.09.20.21.PR0.110.3.899-914
Vesely, A.K., Saklofske, D.H., & Leschied, A.D.W. (2013). Teachers – the vital resource: The contribution of emotional intelligence to teacher efficacy and well-being. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28(1), 71-89. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573512468 855
Wei, Y.C. (2014). The benefits of organizational citizenship behavior for job performance and the moderating role of human capital. International Journal of Business and Management, 9(7), 87-99. https://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n7p87
Wong, C.S., Wong, P.M., & Peng, K. (2010). Effect of middle-level leader and teacher emotional intelligence on school teachers’ job satisfaction. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 38(1), 59-70. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143209351831
Yaakobi, E., & Weisberg, J. (2020). Organizational citizenship behavior predicts quality, creativity, and efficiency performance: The roles of occupational and collective efficacies. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00758