Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 13. Number 4 December 2022 Pp. 215-236
Male Students’ Perceptions of Being Taught by Female Teachers under the Backdrop of
Saudi Cultures and Traditions in ESL Classrooms
Royal Commission for Yanbu Colleges and Institutes
Received:07/05/2022 Accepted:11/05/2022 Published:12/15/2022
The study aims to investigate the perceptions of male students of being taught by female English Second Language (ESL) teachers and examine the efficiency of instructors in teaching English to male students under the restrictions of Saudi customs. Teaching male students of the opposite gender to whom they have not been exposed to prepared before in Saudi Arabia might have an impact on their feelings which may deter them from learning ESL successfully. Therefore, the study aims to answer the main research question; what are the male students’ perceptions of being taught by female ESL teachers in Saudi Arabia? The researcher employed a mixed-method design: A quantitative method, which consists of an ESL test and a 20-item questionnaire, which were distributed among ninety male students in Saudi Arabia to determine their language competence and feelings towards the opposite gender, and a qualitative method, which consists of semi-structured interviews with six ESL teachers and six learners. The study highlights the fact; although teaching male students to females in Saudi Arabia has slightly an impact on their feelings, such as feeling shy and not accepting of them, it does not negatively affect the learning of a second language. However, the efficiency of teaching ESL is the most considerable from the student’s perspective. The outcome of the study can essentially contribute to the development of learning ESL in the Saudi context; it demonstrates some barriers that female ESL teachers face in male classes and highlights some strategies to help female teachers easily interact with male students.
Keywords: Female teachers, gender, male students, perception, second language learning, ESL classrooms
Cite as: Abduljawad , S. (2022). Male Students’ Perceptions of Being Taught by Female Teachers under the Backdrop of Saudi Cultures and Traditions in ESL Classrooms. Arab World English Journal, 13 (4) 215-236.
Al-Ghamdi, A. (2015). Despite the Openness of Thoughts, it is Still Difficult to Get Rid of
Some Arrogant Traditions in Front of a Culture that Sees (the Fault) as More Severe Than (the Sins), 17284, 1-8. Retrieved from https://www.alriyadh.com/1092809
Aida, Y. (1994). Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope’s construct of foreign
Language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese, The modern language journal, 78(2), 155-168.
Al-Anzi, P. (2014). The reality of empowering Saudi Women in higher education institutions,
For the Scientific Journal of the College of Specific Education, 2(2), 129-166, DOI: 10.29063/ajrh2021/v25i1s.2
Alfred A. K. (1930). The Meaning of The Glorious Koran, An Explanatory Translation. New
Al-Khatib, M.S. (2004). Women’s Rights and Duties and the Relationship of Education with that, the University of Saud, the KSA.
Al-Maqtri, M., & Thabet, A. (2013). The Qualities of the Good English Teacher as Perceived
by Saudi and Yemeni College Students of English, Greener Journal of Educational Research, 3(2), 72-79. Retrieved from https://zenodo.org/record/3476927#.XsK0EWgzaM8
Al-Mousa, N. (2010). The Experience of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Mainstreaming
Students with Special Educational Needs in Public Schools, Riyadh: The Arab Bureau of Education for the Gulf States. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001916/191663e.pdf
Al-Nawawi, I. (2014). Riyadh as-Salihin: The Gardens of the Righteous, New Jersey: Tughra Books, ISBN: 9781597846806
Al-Rasheed, W. (2006). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Women and the Development Goals
in the Third Millennium United Nations Development Program, Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Sabban, M. S. (1998). Higher Education and its Relationship to the Women’s Labor Market
in the Holy City of Mecca as a Model for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a study at the Higher Education Symposium, Saudi Arabia.
Saqqaf, A. (2012). Fiqh Encyclopedia Book – Al-Durar Al-Sunni, Retrieved from https://dorar.net/en
Al-Tabrani, I. (1992). Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer, Birmingham, Darussalam Publishers. Retrieved
Altameemy, F. (2019). A Comparative Study of Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions of the
Effective English Teacher at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, International Journal of Innovation, Creativity, and Change, 5(2), 1168-1194. Retrieved from https://www.ijicc.net/images/Vol5iss2_/69_AlTameemy_P1168_2019R.pdf
Beauvois, M. H. (1999). Computer-Mediated Communication: Reducing Anxiety and Building
Community. Affect in a Foreign Language and Second Language Learning: A practical Guide to Creating a Low-Anxiety Classroom Atmosphere, 144-165.
Bell, T. (2005). Behaviors and Attitudes of Effective Foreign Language Teachers: Results of a
Questionnaire Study, The Foreign Language Annals, 38, 259-270. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2005.tb02490.x
Benzehaf, B. (2018). Teaching Excellence in Higher Education in Morocco: English
Students’ Perceptions of Teaching Effectiveness, Journal of Applied Language and Culture Studies, 1, 25-41. Retrieved from https://revues.imist.ma/index.php?journal=JALCS&page=article&op=view&path%5B% 5D=13160&path%5B%5D=7320
Brackett, M. A., Floman, J. L., Ashton-James, C., Cherkasskiy, L., & Salovey, P. (2013). The
Influence of Teacher Emotion on Grading Practices: A Preliminary Look at the Evaluation of Student Writing, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 19, 634–646. doi:10.1080/13540602.2013.827453.
Brković, V., Kardum, R. B., & Togonal, M. (2021). Language Competences in the
Contemporary Teaching of History, International Journal of Instruction, 14(1), 427-444. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2021.14125a
Bukhari, A & ALI, M. (1956). English translation of Sahih al-Bukhari, Lahore, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaʻat-i-Islam.
Brosh, H. (1996). Perceived Characteristics of the Effective Language Teacher, Foreign
Language Annals, 29, 125-138. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1996.tb02322.x
Brown, D. H. (1994). Principles of language learning teaching, London: Prentice Hall Regents.
Brown, J. (1998). Understanding Research in Second Language Learning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, J.D. (2004). Research Methods for Applied Linguistics: Scope, Characteristics, and
Standards, In A. Davies & A; C. Elder (Eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.
Campbell, C. M., & Ortiz, J. (1991). Helping Students Overcome Foreign Language Anxiety:
A Foreign Language Anxiety Workshop, Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications, 153-168.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education, (6th ed.) Abingdon: Routledge.
Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods
Approaches, (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Crookall, D., & Oxford, R. (1991). Dealing with Anxiety: Some Practical Activities for
Language Learners and Teacher Trainees, Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications, 141-150.
Daly J. A. & Buss A. (1984). The Transitory Causes of Audience Anxiety. In J. A. and J.C.
McCroskey (eds.), Avoiding Communication: Shyness, Reticence and Communication Apprehension, Sage, Beverly Hills, Calif.
Daly, J. (1991). Understanding Communication Apprehension: An Introduction for Language
Educators, Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications, 9(1), 3- 13.
Diab R. (2000). Political and Socio-Cultural Factors in Foreign Language Education: The Case of Lebanon, Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, 5, 177-187.
Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Questionnaires in Second Language Research: Construction, Administration, and Processing,
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research Methods in Applied Linguistics, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Farrukh M., Lee J.W.C., Sajid M., Waheed A. (2019) Entrepreneurial intentions: The role of
individualism and collectivism in perspective of theory of planned behavior. Education and Training. 61(8),984-1000.
Foss, K. A., & Reitzel, A. C. (1988). A relational Model for Managing Second Language
Anxiety, TESOL Quarterly, 22(3), 437-454.
Frenzel, A. C. (2014). Teacher Emotions, In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.),
International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 494–519). New York: Routledge.
Gass, S. M. & Mackey, A (2000). Stimulated Recall Methodology in Second Language Research, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ghasemi, B., & Hashemi, M. (2011). The Study of the Characteristics of Successful English
Language Teachers from the Viewpoint of the English Language Students of Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch.
Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28, 411-415. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.078
Hargreaves, A. (2000). Mixed emotions: Teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with
students, Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(8), 811e826. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S0742- 051X (00)00028-7
Hofstede, G., 1980. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values. London: Sage Publications.
Horwitz, E. K. Horwitz, M.B. & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety, Modern Language Journal, 70, 125-32.
Horwitz, E. K. (1986). Preliminary Evidence for the Reliability, and Validity of a Foreign Language Anxiety Scale,
TESOL Quarterly, 20 (3), 559-562.
Hundarenko, O. (2019). Challenges of Teaching Academic Writing Skills in ESL Classroom
Based on International Teaching Experience, Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 11(4), 70-83. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.18662/rrem/158
Ibe, J. O., Adah, S. A., & Ihejiamaizu, C. C. (2013). Assessment of Secondary School
Chemistry Teachers’ Quality through Identification and Use of Laboratory Apparatus in Cross, Journal of Education and Practice, 4(5).
Itani, T. (2014). Quran in English: Clear and Easy to Understand. Modern English Translation,
Create Space Independent Publishing Platform.
Kissa, S. (2006). Gender Differences in Second Language Motivation: An Investigation of
Micro and Macro-Level Influences. Retrieved from http://www.aclacall.org/Revue/Vol-9-nol-art-kissau.pdf
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition, Oxford: Pergamon.
Koka, N., Islam, M., & Osman, M. (2019). Studying Foreign Language Anxiety with its
Causes and Effects: A case of King Khalid University EFL Learners, Arab World English Journal, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/efl1.1
LeDoux, J. (1996). The Emotional Brain, New York: Simon and Schuster.
Lim, J., & Meer, J. (2017). The Impact of Teacher-Student Gender Matches, Random
Assignment Evidence from South Korea, Journal of Human Resources, 52(4), 979-997. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3368/jhr.52.4.1215-7585R1
Lucas, J. (1984). Communication Apprehension in the ESL Classroom: Getting our Students
to Talk, Foreign Language Annals, 17(6), 593-598.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Investigating Language Class Anxiety Using the
Focused Essay Technique, The Modern Language Journal, 75(3), 296-304.
Mahboob, A., & Elyas, T. (2014). English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, World English,
33,128-142. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12073
Makki, Y. (2008). Social problems facing women in Saudi Arabia: Exit and Solutions, Saudi Arabia.
Martino, W., & Frank, B. (2006). The Tyranny of Surveillance: Male Teachers and the
Policing of Masculinities in a Single sex school, Gender and Education, 18(1), 17-33. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/09540250500194914.
Metruk, R. (2020). Qualities of a Good and Effective Teacher: Slovak EFL Pre-Service and
In-Service Teachers’ Perspectives, Journal of Language and Education, 6(3), 80- 93. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.17323/jle.2020.10593
Metruk, R. (2021). Male and Female University Students’ Perceptions of an Effective EFL
Teacher, International Journal of Instruction, 14(2), 1308-1470. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1291000.pdf
Nikitina, F. (2007). Language Classroom: A ‘Girls’ Domain? Female and Male Students’
Perspectives on Language Learning, University Malaysia Sabah.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language Learning Strategies are what every teacher should know,
Bosten, MA: Heinle & Heinle
Park, G., & Lee, H. (2006). The Characteristics of Effective English Teachers as Perceived
by High School Teachers and Students in Korea, Asia Pacific Education Review, 7, 236-248. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03031547
Phillips, E. M. (1991). Anxiety and Oral Competence: Classroom Dilemma, The French Review, 65(1), 1-14.
Quraan, H. (2006). Empowerment and Palestinian Women, Centre for Studies – Aman – Arab
Centre for Resource and Information on Violence against Women. Retrieved from http://www.amanjordan.org/aman_
Rashidi, N., & Rafiee, R. M. (2010). Analyzing Patterns of Classroom Interaction in EFL
Classrooms in Iran, The Journal of Asia TEFL. 7(3): 93-120.
Rashidi, N., & Sahar, N. (2012). The Effect of Gender on the Patterns of Classroom Interaction,
Journal of Education. 2(3): 30-36
Shaaban, K., & Ghaith, G. (2003). Effect of Religion, First Foreign Language and Gender in
the Perception of the Utility of Language, Journal of Language, Identity, and Education 2(1), 53-77.
Sides, J. D., & Cuevas, J. A. (2020). Effect of Goal Setting for Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and
Performance in Elementary Mathematics. International Journal of Instruction, 13(4), 1-16. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2020.1341a
Siebert, L. (2003). Student and Teacher Beliefs about Language Learning, The TESOL Journal, 21, 7-39.
Sotto, E. (2011). When Teaching Becomes Learning: The Theory and Practice of Teaching,
(2nd ed.). London, England: Continuum Education.
Stognieva, O. (2020). Exploring the Potential of TED Talks for Teaching Business English to
University Students, The Journal of Asa TEFL, 17(4), 1468-1476. Retrieved from
Štubňa, P., (2019). Simultaneous Interpretation Quality Assessment, Revista Dilemas Contemporáneos:
Educación, Política y Valores 6, 1-15.
Timms, C., Graham, D., & Cottrell, D. (2007). I Just Want to Teach: Queensland
Independent School Teachers and their Workload, Journal of Educational Administration, 45(5), 569-586. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1108/09578230710778204.
Trigwell, K. (2012). Relations Between Teachers’ Emotions in Teaching and their
Approaches to Teaching in Higher Education, Instructional Science, 40, 607–621. doi:10.1007/s1125-011-9192-3.
Usmani, T. (2006). Islam and Modernism, New Delhi, Adam Publishers
Von Wörde, R. A. (1998). An investigation of students’ perceptions of foreign language anxiety, Doctoral dissertation,
George Mason University, USA.
Xiong, X. (2010). A Comparative Study of Boys’ and Girls’ English Study Differences, Journal of Language Teaching
and Research, 1(3).
Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a Low‐Anxiety Classroom Environment: What Does Language
Anxiety Research Suggest? The modern language journal, 75(4), 426-437.
Zamani, R., & Ahangari, S. (2015). Qualities of an Effective English Language Teacher
(EELT) from Male and Female Students’ Point of view, Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, 8(16), 199-220.
Retrieved from http://jal.iaut.ac.ir/article_524582_6cb3273564cd974909dc701956b9b46b.pdf