Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 12. Number2 June 2021                                           Pp. 222-237

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Iraqi Kurd EFL Learners’ Uses of Conjunctive Adverbials in Essays

Awder Raza Aziz
Translation Techniques Department, Sulaimani Technical Institute
Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
English Department, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraq

Rebaz Bahadeen Mohammed Nuri
Translation Techniques Department, Sulaimani Technical Institute,
Sulaimani Polytechnic University
Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Received: 3/29/2021               Accepted: 5/6/2021                 Published:6/24/2021


The quality of any academic essay highly depends on cohesion and coherence since they affect the overall quality and the tone of the writing to a great extent. Conjunctive adverbials are among the types of devices which logically help linking sentences into paragraphs and paragraphs into essays. Conjunctive Adverbials ultimately affect the cohesion and coherence of any piece of writing. This paper investigates conjunctive adverbials in essays written by Iraqi Kurd EFL learners at the undergraduate level. It explicitly attempts to discover what specific conjunctive adverbials types are overused, underused, or misused and in what positions in sentences. A learner corpus of 50 complete essays was compiled for this study. The findings showed that the participants tended to use more sequential and additive conjunctive adverbials than adversative and causals. Additionally, the results demonstrated that the learners relied heavily on a limited number of conjunctive adverbials, mainly in the initial position. However, the conjunctive adverbial category affects its place in the sentence.
Keywords:  Academic writing, adverbial conjuncts, corpus study, discourse markers, Kurd EFL learners

Cite as:  Aziz, A.R., & Nuri, R. B. M. (2021). Iraqi Kurd EFL Learners’ Uses of Conjunctive Adverbials in Essays.
Arab World English Journal, 12 (2) 222-237.


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Received: 3/29/2021 
Accepted: 5/6/2021 
Published: 6/24/2021   

Awder Raza Aziz is an assistant lecturer of Applied Linguistics and TESOL currently teaching at Translation Techniques Department, Sulaimani Technical Institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, and English Department, Komar University of Science and Technology in the city of Sulaimani in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. He has obtained an MA in Applied Linguistics and TESOL from Newcastle University in the United Kingdom. As an EFL lecturer and researcher, he is interested in applied linguistics, pragmatics, sociolinguistics, and TESOL.

Rebaz Bahadeen Mohammed Nuri is an assistant lecturer of technical translation at Translation Techniques Department, Sulaimani Technical Institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University. He holds MA in Applied Linguistics with TESOL from the University of Sheffield UK and a BA in English Language and Literature from the University of Sulaimani. Rebaz has taught a wide range of English language courses to EFL/ESL learners for general and academic purposes. His areas of interest are applied linguistics, technics of translation, and spontaneous translation training.