Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Proceedings of 2nd MEC TESOL Conference 2020 Pp.259-272
Investigating Omani College Teachers’ Perspective on Critical Media Literacy
Asma Al Aufi
Centre for Foundation Studies
Middle East College, Muscat, Oman
Despite the numerous benefits presented within Critical Media Literacy (CML) in understanding societies, cultures, and even our values globally, the lack of teacher preparation, including English language teachers, in teaching (CML) skills remains noteworthy. Such education could arm teachers with sufficient media literacy competence to pass on to students’ capabilities in democratic self-expression and social progress. The research gap that exists, therefore, leads to this qualitative research study where the aim is to explore how a group of five College EFL teachers in a Middle Eastern institution in Oman relate to critical media awareness. This is by deconstructing a US film entitled ‘Freedom Writers’ (2007) to discuss issues related to social injustice, prejudice, and violence in society. The method used to collect data was semi-structured interviews. The interview questions, guided by a semiotic Inquiry Graphics (IG) approach, aimed to capture those EFL teachers’ interpretations, values, and beliefs relevant to CML and their subsequent intentions to teach CML in their future English classrooms. The findings suggest that although the teachers demonstrated positive attitudes and increased awareness of CML, they lacked confidence in applying it and needed to expand their perceptions of CML further. Generally, they viewed CML as being helpful for students in its ability to develop their criticality and citizenship. However, the teachers stressed the harsh realities of a packed curriculum and restrictive program requirements that may obstruct any comprehensive implementation of CML education at a university level, an issue that merits further consideration.
Keywords: Critical media literacy (CML), EFL teachers, social justice, semiotics, inquiry graphics (IG) approach
Cite as: Al Aufi, A. (2020). Investigating Omani College Teachers’ Perspective on Critical Media Literacy. Arab World English Journal(AWEJ). Proceedings of 2nd MEC TESOLConference 2020. 259-272.
Ashley, S., Lyden, G., & Fasbinder, D. (2012). Exploring message meaning: A qualitative media literacy study of college freshmen. The Journal of Media Literacy Education, 4(3), 229-243.
Azevedo, M. R. (2019). A case for the common good: How training in Faith-based media literacy helped teachers address social justice issues in the classroom. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 11(1), 97-113. https://doi.org/10.23860/JMLE-2019-11-1-5
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Bergstrom, A. M., Flynn, M., & Craig, C. (2018). Deconstructing Media in the College Classroom: A Longitudinal Critical Media Literacy Intervention. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 10(3), 113131. https://doi.org/10.23860/JMLE-2018-10-3-7
Bordac, S. (2014). Introduction to Media Literacy History. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 6(2), 1-2.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Britsch, S. (2009). ESOL educators and the experience of visual literacy. TESOL Quarterly, 43(4), 710-721. hps://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2009.tb00197.x
Carnevale, A. P., Smith, N., & Melton, M. (2011). STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics. Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED525297
Cherner, T. S., & Curry, K. (2019). Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Teach Media Literacy: A Response to “Fake News”. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 11(1), 1-31.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: Sage publications.
Deal, D., Flores-Koulish, S., & Sears, J. (2010). Media literacy teacher talk: Interpretation, value, and implementation. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 1(2), 121-131.
Dominguez, C. (2019). Critical Awareness of Media and Teacher Education: An Experience with Colombian ELT Pre-Service Teachers. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 11(1), 32-51.
Duran, R. L., Yousman, B., Walsh, K. M., & Longshore, M. A. (2008). Holistic media education: An assessment of the effectiveness of a college course in media literacy. Communication quarterly, 56(1), 49-68.
Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and text: Linguistic and intertextual analysis within discourse analysis. Discourse & Society, 3(2), 193-217. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926592003002004
Ferguson, B. (2001). Media education and the development of critical solidarity. Media Education Journal, 30, 37-44.
Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge. New York: Pantheon.
Fox, N. J., & Alldred, P. (2017). Sociology and the new materialism: Theory, research, action. London: Sage.
Freire, P. (1974). Education for critical consciousness. London and New York: Continuum.
Fuxa, R. (2012). What dirty dancing taught me about media literacy education. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 4(2), 179-183.
Gehlert, N. C. (2018). Teaching Social Justice: Intergenerational Service-Learning in Digital Media Course. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 10(1), 148-158.
Goodman, S. (2013). Teaching youth media: A critical guide to literacy, video production, and social change. New York: Teachers College Press
Gourlay, L., Hamilton, M., & Lea, M. R. (2014). Textual practices in the new media digital landscape: messing with digital literacies. Research in Learning Technology, 21(4), 1-13.
Gretter, S., & Yadav, A. (2018). What Do Preservice Teachers Think about Teaching Media Literacy?: An Exploratory Study Using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 10(1), 104-123.
Hallewell, M. J., & Lackovic, N. (2017). Do pictures ‘tell’ a thousand words in lectures? How lecturers vocalise photographs in their presentations. Higher Education Research & Development, 36(6), 1166-1180. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2017.1303454
Hobbs, R. (2011). Digital and media literacy: Connecting culture and classroom. housand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Hobbs, R., & Jensen, A. (2009). The past, present, and future of media literacy education. Journal of media literacy education, 1(1), 1-11.
Inan, T., & Temur, T. (2012). Examining media literacy levels of prospective teachers. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(2), 269-285.
Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. York and London: New York University Press.
Jiang, J., & Vetter, M. A. (2020). The good, the bot, and the ugly: problematic information and critical media literacy in the postdigital era. Postdigital Science and Education, 2(1), 78-94.
Jolls, T., & Wilson, C. (2014). The core concepts: Fundamental to media literacy yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 6(2), 68-78.
Kellner, D., & Share, J. (2005). Toward critical media literacy: Core concepts, debates, organizations, and policy. Discourse: Studies in the cultural politics of education, 26(3), 369-386.
Kellner, D., & Share, J. (2007). Critical media literacy is not an option. Learning Inquiry, 1(1), 59–69.
Kellner, D., & Share, J. (2007). Critical media literacy: Crucial policy choices for a twenty-first-century democracy. Policy Futures in Education, 5(1), 59-69.
Lacković, N. (2018). Analysing videos in educational research: an “Inquiry Graphics” approach for multimodal, Peircean semiotic coding of video data. Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy, 3(1), 1-23.
Lacković, N. (2020). Thinking with digital images in the post-truth era: A method in critical media literacy. Postdigital Science and Education, 2, 442-462. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42438-019-00099-y
Luke, A. (2012). Critical literacy: Foundational notes. Theory into Practice, 51(1), 4-11.
Luke, C. (1994). Feminist pedagogy and critical media literacy. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 18(2), 30-47.
Marlatt, R. (2020). Encounter and counter: Critical media literacy in teacher education. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 12(2), 93-99.
Marsh, J. (2005). Tightropes, tactics, and taboos: Preservice teachers’ beliefs and practices in relation to popular culture and literacy. Popular Literacies, Childhood and Schooling, 179-199.
Moore, S. D. (2013). Media Literacies: A Critical Introduction (2012). Journal of Media Literacy Education, 4(3), 275-277.
Morrell, E., Dueñas, R., Garcia, V., & Lopez, J. (2013). Critical media pedagogy: Teaching for achievement in city schools. London: Teachers College Press.
Mouza, C. (2020). Developing Critical Media Literacy Skills in the Digital Age. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 20(1), 1-3.
Parker, J. K. (ed.).010). Teaching tech-savvy kids: Bringing digital media into the classroom, grades 5-12. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Peirce, C. S. (1991). Peirce on signs: Writings on semiotic.S: UNC Press Books.
Peters, M. A. (2018). The history and practice of lying in public life. In M. A. Peters, S. Rider, M. Hyvonen, & T. Besley (eds.), Post-Truth, Fake News (pp. 77-88). Springer: Singapore.
Rogow, F. (2011). Ask, don’t tell: Pedagogy for media literacy education in the next decade. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 3(1), 16-22.
Schmidt, H. C. (2015). Helping students understand media: Examining the efficacy of interdisciplinary media training at the university level. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 7(2), 50-68
Schwandt, T. A. (1994). Constructivist, interpretivist approaches to human inquiry. In N. K. Benzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 118-137). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication, Inc
Semetsky, I. (2007). Towards a semiotic theory of learning: Deleuze’s philosophy and educational experience. Semiotica, (164), 197-214.
Share, J., & Mamikonyan, T. (2020). Preparing English Teachers With Critical Media Literacy for the Digital Age. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 20(1), 37-54
Stables, A., Nöth, W., Olteanu, A., Pesce, S., & Pikkarainen, E. (2018). Semiotic Theory of learning: New perspectives in the philosophy of education. London: Routledge.
Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. Foundations ofCritical Race Theory in Education, 1-13.
Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software protocols. Hampshire, UK: The Falmer Press.
Tiede, J., Grafe, S., & Hobbs, R. (2015). Pedagogical Media Competencies of Preservice Teachers in Germany and the United States: A Comparative Analysis of Theory and Practice. Peabody Journal of Education, 90(4), 533-545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0161956X.2015.1068083
Torres, M., & Mercado, M. (2006). The need for critical media literacy in teacher education core curricula. Educational Studies, 39(3), 260-282. DOI: 10.1207/s15326993es3903_5
Weil, D. K. (1998). Towards a critical multicultural literacy: Theory and practice for education for liberation. New York: Peter Lang.
Wells, L. (2003). The Photography reader. London: Routledge.
Yilmaz, K. (2013). Comparison of quantitative and qualitative research traditions: Epistemological, theoretical, and methodological differences. European Journal of Education, 48(2), 311-325. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12014