Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 14. Number 4 December 2023                 Pp. 111-130

Full Paper PDF

 Investigating Chinese Tertiary EFL Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices in the Application of
Learning Management Systems Using Q Methodology

Yanjing Qi
Language Academy, Faculty of Human Science and Humanities,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia
Department of Foreign Language Education and Teaching,
Hebei Finance University, Hebei, China
Corresponding Author:

Rohani Binti Othman
Language Academy, Faculty of Human Science and Humanities,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia

Received:07/09/2023      Accepted:11/17/2023        Published: 12/15/2023


The purpose of this study is to explore Chinese tertiary EFL teachers’ beliefs and practices as well as the relationships between them in the application of Learning Management Systems (LMS in short). By reviewing relevant literature, previous studies either carried out research on teachers’ beliefs and practices in the training of basic English learning skills or compared them between novice and experienced teachers. This study fills the gap of research on teachers’ beliefs and practices from the perspective of technology integration, specifically LMS application. By using the Q methodology, 38 EFL teachers teaching the same EFL course to undergraduate students at F University in mainland China were selected as research participants. After collecting research data through open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, four different types of teachers’ LMS beliefs and three different levels of teachers’ LMS practices were identified by employing Q Methodology software-PQMethod and a web application Ken-Q analysis. Through comparing each participant’s corresponding beliefs and practices, both consistent and inconsistent relationships are found. The research findings not only prove the definite connection between teachers’ LMS beliefs and practices but also reveal the discrepancies between what teachers believe and do while using LMS. In general, The research can not only offer a new methodological solution for further research on cognitive factors like teachers’ beliefs but also provide pedagogical implications to EFL teachers to promote their career development.
Keywords: Chinese tertiary EFL teachers, Learning Management System, Q methodology, teachers’ beliefs,
teachers’ practices

Cite as: Qi, Y., & Othman, R. B. (2023). Investigating Chinese Tertiary EFL Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices in the Application of Learning Management Systems Using Q Methodology.  Arab World English Journal, 14 (4) 111-130.


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Received: 07/09/2023
Accepted: 11/17/2023  
Published: 12/15/2023 

Yanjing Qi is a current PhD. student at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. She is also a faculty member of Hebei Finance University in China. Her areas of expertise are Techonology Assisted Language Teaching and Learning, Blended Teaching, and Teacher Development. ORCid ID:

Dr. Rohani Binti Othman is a graduate faculty member at UTM. Her research interests are TESL, Engineering Education, Engineering Communication, Communication at the Workplace, Assessment of Communication Skills, Outcome-Based Education (OBE), and Multidisciplinary Research integrating communication into engineering courses and evaluating students’ achievement in communication skills outcomes. ORCid ID: