Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL Number 6. July 2020.                          Pp. 122-139

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  Flowchart: Scaffolding Narrative Writing in an English as a Second Language (ESL)
Primary Classroom

Melanie Selvaraj
Faculty of Education
University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

Azlina Abdul Aziz
Faculty of Education
University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia



Learning to write can be a nightmare, be it on the natives or second language. Various approaches, methods, and techniques were tested by researches to improve the writing skills of learners with multiple issues in mastering the craft. Nevertheless, the standards of writing achievements among second language learners are remarkably frustrating. In Malaysia, teaching writing to the primary school pupils is one of the biggest concerns as pupils expected to compose  narratives  as assessment in the public primary education. Concerning this, this research aimed to measure the effectiveness of the flow chart to improve pupils’ narrative writing and to investigate pupils’ achievement levels in each narrative writing component. Besides, it identifies the pedagogical strategies that lead to the scaffolding of narrative writing. Action research carried out with 12 intervention sessions in two cycles. Each Cycle involved three stages: planning, action, and reflection. A total of 25 Year Four  urban primary school pupils participated in this study. The researcher obtained the data via pre and posttest, analysis of pupils’ narrative writing, and classroom observations. The findings showed that there was a significant improvement in pupils’ posttest scores and narrative writing assessment components. This study is essential to improve narrative writing achievement and benefit teachers who teach narrative writing in primary and secondary schools to enhance pupils’ performances. Studies in the future should include pupils from rural area schools with low proficiency levels to compare the findings in employing flow chart in narrative writing.
Keywords: English as Second Language, flow chart, narrative, scaffolding, writing assessments

Cite as:  Selvaraj, M.&  Abdul Aziz, A.  (2020). Flowchart: Scaffolding Narrative Writing in an English as a Second Language (ESL) Primary Classroom. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL (6). 122-139.  DOI: 


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Melanie Selvaraj is a Masters candidate at University Kebangsaan Malaysia and a full time
English Language teacher in a primary school for 22 years. Her professional interest is in second
language teaching methodologies.

Azlina Abdul Aziz is a TESL lecturer at the Faculty of Education, UKM. She has an Ed.D in
Teaching of English from Teachers College, Columbia University, U.S.A. Her research interests
are in the Teaching and Learning of Literature and Teacher Education in TESL. She is interested
in how literary texts and personal narrative may be utilised to help students to examine the social,
cultural and political issues in a particular context.