Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 11. Number2  June 2020                                                  Pp.18- 36

Full Paper PDF



Feedback on the Classroom Performance of Pre-service English language Teachers in

Moza Abdullah Al-Malki
Rustaq College of Education, Oman

Katie Weir
School of education and professional studies
Griffith University, Australia

Wayne Usher
  School of education and professional studies
Griffith Univeristy, Australia


The research reported here is part of a larger, doctoral study that aims at examining the process of assessing the classroom performance of pre-service English language teachers in three higher education institutions in Oman. This article reports on an investigation into the social practices associated with assessing the classroom performance of pre-service English language teachers at Sultan Qaboos Univeristy (SQU), Rustaq College of Education and Nizwa University. Specifically, this study aims at answering one research question:  How do stakeholders understand and experience feedback when assessing pre-service teacher classroom performance? The research adopted a phenomenological approach for examining a total of 10 participants’ feedback experiences through semi-structured interviews and observations of the phenomenon in situ. The findings of this study revealed shared understandings about the purpose of feedback for improving pre-service teachers’ classroom performance. However, it was revealed that variations in feedback processes affected its efficacy in enhancing pre-service teachers’ classroom readiness. Pre-service teachers confirmed this finding and expressed their desire for greater agency and some consistency and uniformity in the type of feedback they receive during their school experience. The paper concludes by presenting recommendations that go to heighten the quality of the feedback process provided to pre-service English language teachers in Oman.

Keywords: classroom performance, feedback, pre-service English language teachers, Omani institutions

Cite as:  Al-Malki, M. A., Weir, K. , &  Usher, W. (2020). Feedback on the classroom performance of pre-service English language teachers in Oman. Arab World English Journal11 (2) 18- 36.


Akkuzu, N. (2014). The role of different types of feedback in the reciprocal interaction of teaching performance and self-efficacy belief. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3), 37-66.

Ali, H. I. H., & Al-Adawi, H. A. (2013). Providing effective feedback to EFL student teachers. Higher Education Studies, 3(3), 21

Al-Issa, A. S. (2008). The implications of the teacher training program to the ELT policy implementation in Oman. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 5(2), 59-92.

Al-Issa, A., & Al-Bulushi, A. (2010). Training English language student teachers to become reflective teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(4), 41-64.

Al-Mahrooqi, R. I. (2011). EFL student teacher perceptions of the teaching practice program at SQU. AWEJ, 2(2), 243-266.

Assessment Reformation Group (2002a). Assessment for learning: 10 principles: London: ARG. From www.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability (formerly: Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education), 21(1), 1-31. DOI: 10.1007/s11092-008-9068-5

Brookhart, S. (2013). How to give effective feedback to your childrenAlexandia: ASCD

Carless, D. (2009). Trust, distrust and their impact on assessment reform. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 34 (1), 79-89.

Carless, D., Joughin, G., & Liu, N.-F. (2006). How assessment supports learning: Learning-oriented assessment in action. Hong Kong University Press.

Cohen, E., Hoz, R., & Kaplan, H. (2013). The practicum in preservice teacher education: a review of empirical studies. Teaching Education, 24(4), 345-380.

Fairclough, N. (2001). Language and power. England: Pearson Education.

Falchikov, N. (1995). Improving feedback to and from students. In P. Knight (Ed.), Assessment for Learning in higher education (pp.157-166). London: Kogan Page

Gipps, C. (1999). Socio-cultural aspects of assessment. Review of research in education, 24(1), 355-392.

Gipps, C. (2002). Sociocultural Perspectives on Assessment. In G. Wells & G. Claxton (Eds.), Learning for life in the 21st century: sociocultural perspectives on the future of education (Vol. 1, pp. 73-83). Malden, MA; Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research, 77(1), 81-112.

Hudson, P. (2007). Examining mentors’ practices for enhancing preservice teachers’ pedagogical development in mathematics and science. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 15(2), 201-217.

Hudson, P., & Millwater, J. (2008). Mentors’ views about developing effective English teaching practices. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 33(5), 1-13.

James, M. (2006). Assessment, Teaching and Theories of Learning. In J. Gardner (Ed.), Assessment and Learning (pp. 47-60). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kaphesi, E. (2013). Assessing final year undergraduate student teacher on school based teaching practice at the Polytechnic of the University Malawi: a dual assessment process. African Journal of Teacher Education, 3(2), 1-17. DOI: 10.21083/ajote.v3i2.2732

Korthagen, F., Loughran, J., & Russell, T. (2006). Developing fundamental principles for teacher education programs and practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 1020-1041.

Moody, J. (2009). Key elements in a positive practicum: Insights from Australian post-primary pre-service teachers. Irish Educational Studies, 28(2), 155-175.

Mustafa, R. F. (2012). Feedback on the feedback: Sociocultural interpretation of Saudi ESL learners’ opinions about writing feedback. English Language Teaching, 5(3), 3-15. DOI:10.5539/elt.v5n3p3

Nguyen, H. T. (2009). An inquiry-based practicum model: What knowledge, practices, and relationships typify empowering teaching and learning experiences for student teachers, cooperating teachers and college supervisors? Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(5), 655-662.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Rennert-Ariev, P. (2005). A theoretical model for the authentic assessment of teaching. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 10(2), 151-163.

Richards, K., Bell, T., & Dwyer, A. E. (2017). Training sessional staff to provide quality feedback on university students’ assessment: Lessons from a Faculty of Law learning and teaching project. Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 65(1), 25-34.

Rozelle, J. J., & Wilson, S. M. (2012). Opening the black box of field experiences: How cooperating teachers’ beliefs and practices shape student teachers’ beliefs and practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(8), 1196-1205.

Sadler, D.R. (2002). “Ah!… So that’s ‘quality’”. In Schwartz, P. and Webb, G. (Eds), Assessment: Case studies, experience and practice from higher education (pp130–136). London: Kogan Page.

Sadler, D.R. (2009). Indeterminacy in the use of preset criteria for assessment and grading, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 34(2), 159-179.

Shepard, L. (2006). Classroom Assessment. In R. L. Brennan (Ed.), Educational Measurement (4th ed.). Westport, CT: American Council on Education & Praegar Publishers.

Smith, K. (2007). Empowering school-and university-based teacher educators as assessors: A school–university cooperation. Educational Research and Evaluation, 13(3), 279-293.

Smith, K. (2010). Assessing the Practicum in teacher education – Do we want candidates and mentors to agree? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 36(1), 36-41.

Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. H. (2009). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: theory, method and research. London, UK: Sage Publication.

Tillema, H. H., Smith, K., & Leshem, S. (2011). Dual roles–conflicting purposes: a comparative study on perceptions on assessment in mentoring relations during practicum. European Journal of Teacher Education, 34(2), 139-159.

Thomas, A. F., & Sondergeld, T. (2015). Investigating the impact of feedback instruction: Partnering preservice teachers with middle school students to provide digital, scaffolded feedback. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 15(4), 83-109.‏

White, S. (2007). Investigating Effective Feedback Practices for Pre‐service Teacher Education Students on Practicum. Teaching Education, 18(4), 299-311.

Wiggins, G. (2012). Seven keys to effective feedback. Feedback for learning, 70 (1), 10-16.


Dr. Al-Malki is an assistant professor working at Rustaq College of Education since 2007. She holds PhD from Griffith University, Australia in Education. Her interests are in the area of assessment, teaching strategies and integrating technology in classrooms. Currently, she is teaching college-and school-based practicum courses, English language Teaching (ELT) courses and language skills for foundation students.

Dr. Weir began her career in education as a Secondary Science teacher in North Queensland where she enjoyed thirteen years teaching and heading up school science departments. A move to Sydney opened up an opportunity to return to university to undertake a Masters Degree in Education specialising in Curriculum Studies. She hold her PhD from University of Queensland. She specializes in educational assessment and curriculum at Griffith University.

Dr Usher has had over 30 years of practical experience in education, spanning across primary, secondary and higher educational settings. Throughout his teaching career, Dr Usher has been a Deputy Principal, Curriculum Co-Ordinator, House Master and HPE Head of Department. He has taught in various state and private school settings throughout Brisbane and Gold Coast regions. Dr Usher has also worked abroad and has experienced teaching and as a Health Promotion Officer throughout England / London / Gold Coast. He is currently a Senior Lecturer in Health and Physical Education, convening large undergraduate and postgraduate (Masters) courses. Throughout his time at Griffith University (Education), Dr Usher has been a First Year Advisor (4 years), Program Director (5 years) and Program Advisor (2 years) of large undergraduate study programs (Bachelor of Primary Education).