Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 12. Number3   September 2021                                         Pp. 111-128

Full Paper PDF 

Family’s Role in Achieving Language Affiliation among Children: A Comparative Study
Applied to Some Families

  Aljohara Fahad Al Saud
Department of Early Education, Faculty of Education
King Saud University

   Received:  5/27/2021                       Accepted: 8/22/2021               Published:  9/24/2021

Identifying language affiliation among children for family immigrants is crucial for one’s language identity. This study aimed to determine the role played by Arab families in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Austria, and Britain to attain language affiliation among their children. It also aims to identify the challenges facing families living in these countries in achieving language affiliation among their children. The study population consisted of all the families that live in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in addition to all the Arab families that live in Austria and Britain and the study sample included (120) parents. The researcher adopted the descriptive-analytical approach and used the questionnaire as the study tool. The study reached several results; first, the role played by families in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Austria, and United Kingdom to attain language affiliation among their children got a high degree of response. Second, the challenges facing activating the family’s role in attaining language affiliation of their children in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Austria have got a high degree of response, while in Britain, they obtained a very high degree of response. The study recommended involving all family members in accessing different and creative ways of practicing their native language and activating the role of social media in developing the language affiliation of children.
Keywords: challenges, children, family role, language affiliation, language identity

Cite as: Al Saud, A. F.  (2021). Family’s Role in Achieving Language Affiliation among Children: A Comparative Study Applied to Some Families.
Arab World English Journal, 12 (3) 111-128.



Alhashimy, S. (2017). Wohnen In Österreich-Eine Informationsbroschüre Auf Deutsch Und Arabisch. Vienna: Samariterbund.

Al-Jumaily, S. (2015). Parents’ first language is their children’s second language. Language loss: Arabic is a case. International Journal of English Language Teaching, 2(2), 19-31.

Altaie, H. A. (2009). Nashat Allagha ]  Language Generation[. Educational Studies, 6, 195-220.

Ben Nafa, H. (2018). Code-Switching as an evaluative strategy: Identity construction among ArabicEnglish bilinguals in Manchester, (Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation). Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.

Bou Raad, E. P., Hallit, S., Iskandar, K., & Zeenny, R. M. (2017). Validation of a patient-pharmacist relationship measurement tool in Lebanon. RRJPPS, 6(2), 1-10.

Caine, T. M. (2008). Do you speak global?: the spread of English and the implications for English language teaching. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education, 1(1), 1-11.

Caldwell, J. D. (2013). Examining the experiences and adjustment challenges of Saudi Arabian students in the California state university system, (Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation). California State University, USA.

Chung, K. H. (2014). Nonnative speaker teachers’ professional identities: The effects of teaching experience and linguistic and social contexts, (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of California, Los Angeles.

Cole, M. (2008). The importance of parental involvement in language acquisition and activities and techniques to enhance the home-school connection, (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Washington University School of Medicine, USA.

Clycq, N., Driezen, A., & Verschraegen, G. (2021). (Sub) national and supranational identity among majority and minority youth in superdiverse urban schools. Journal of Youth Studies, 24(5), 563-579.

Cunningham, U., & King, J. (2018). Language, ethnicity, and belonging for the children of migrants in New Zealand. SAGE Open8(2), 1-11.

Dabla, K. (2015). dawr altasadue al’usrii almaenawii fi zahar alaightirab alnafsii ladaa almarahiq. ] The role of the family moral crack in the back of adolescent psychological alienation : A case study of some adolescents[ Sudan: Dar Al Jinan for Publishing and Distribution.

Das, G., & Priya, M. (2017). Family History and Its Influence on Infants’ Language Development. Universal Journal of Psychology, 5(1), 8-16. DOI: 10.13189/ujp.2017.050102

Dean-El, V. (2019). Understanding social workers’ roles providing case management to Medicaid managed care enrollees, (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). Walden University, USA.

Figueiredo, S. (2017). Learn a second language first a guide for L2 research in the context of languages other than English. USA: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.

Hamida, A. (2010). Taheel alwaldain wa afrad alosra limutabat taqiim alnomo alllagawi liabnaehim fi almarhala alasasia lsafof alarba alola ]Rehabilitation of parents and family members to follow up on evaluating the linguistic development of their children in the basic stage of the first four grades[. The 20th cultural season of the Jordanian Arabic Language Academy, Amman, 23 October.

Halawa, B. (2011). Dawr alwalidayn fi takwin alshakhsiat alaijtimaeiat eind al’abna’ dirasa maydaniat fi madinat dimashq ]The role of parents in the formation of social personality of children, a field study in Damascus[ . Damascus University Journal, 27 (3/4), 71-109.

Hancock, A. (2014). Chinese Complementary Schools in Scotland and the Continua of Biliteracy. In X-L, Curdt-Christiansen, & A. Hancock (Eds.), Learning Chinese in Diasporic Communities: Many Pathways to Being Chinese, (pp. 59-80). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Ibn Nafa, H. (2018). Code-Switching as an Evaluative Strategy: Identity Construction among ArabicEnglish Bilinguals in Manchester, (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.

Jin, L. (2015). Developing Chinese complimenting in a study abroad program. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics (Quarterly), 38(3), 277-300.

Jubara, O. B. (2013). Izdewagiat Allaga wa athrha fi almugtama. [Bilingualism and its impact on society and the family]. Journal of Family Studies, 3, 110-134

Mattheoudakis, M., Chatzidaki, A., Maligkoudi, C., & Agathopoulou, E. (2016). Family and school language input: their role in bilingual children’s vocabulary development. JAL 31, 49-69.

Mead, A. (2013). Identity and sentient emotions at work, (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). Macquarie University, Australia.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (2020, June 1). Role. Available at

Mosty, N., Lefever, S., & Ragnarsdóttir, H. (2013). Parents’ perspectives toward home language and bilingual development of preschool children [Special Issue 2013—Research and School Practice. University of Iceland, School of Education]. Netla—Online Journal on Pedagogy and Education. Retrieved from

Muhammad, S. (2012). Aldawr altakamuli lil’usra walrawda fi eamaliat altanshia alaijtimaeia. ]The integrative role of the family and kindergarten in the process of social upbringing[ . Journal of Humanities, 8, 110-125.

Ng, P. C. L. (2017). A Study of attitudes of dialect speakers towards the speak mandarin campaign in Singapore. 1st Ed., Cham, Springer.

Rovira, L. C. (2003). The Relationship between Language and Identity. The Use of the Home Language as a Human Right of the Immigrant. REMHU – Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana, XVI(31), 63-81.

Saati, F. (2014). al’idara alriyadia manahij albahth al’ilmi fi al’iidara alriyadia  ]Sports Management Scientific research approaches[ . Cairo: Al-Arabi for Publishing and Distribution.

Saleh, A. (2014). alkhidma alaigtimaeia wa majalat almumarasat almihaniea. ] Social service and areas of professional practice[ . Egypt: Modern University Office.

Steinicke, E., Walder, J., Loffler, R., & Beismann, M. (2010). Autochthonous Linguistic Minorities in the Italian Alpes: New Legislation – New Identifications – New Demographic Process. Journal of Alpine Research, 99(2), 1-14. DOI : 10.4000/rga.1454

Taha, B. (2010). dawr al’usra fi tanmiat mahara allugha alearabia ladaa al’atfal: dirasa wasafia tahlilia limarhalat ma qabl almadrasa walhalqa al’uwlaa min marhalat al’asas, mahaliyat jabal ‘awlia’ [The role of the family in developing Arabic language skills of children: A preschool analytical descriptive study and the first level of the basic stage, Jabal Awliya locality] (Unpublished Master’s Thesis), Omdurman Islamic University, Sudan.

Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Rodriguez, E. T. (2009). Parents’ Role in Fostering Young Children’s Learning and Language Development. Language Development and Literacy, Encyclopedia on Early Childhood.

Tatar, R. (2015). Parents’ role in their children’s development and maintenance of the heritage language: A case study of a Turkish-American immigrant family, (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana.

The United State Department of Education. (2019, November 19). Talk, read and sing together every day!: tips for using language at home and the community. Available at

Zaitoun, M. (2012).al’usra wadawruha fi ‘ighna’ lughat ‘abnaiha  ]The family and its role in enriching the language of its children[.  The Arab-Arabic Renaissance Ways Conference – the 30th Cultural Season of the Arabic-Jordanian Language Academy, November-Muharram, Amman.


Received: 5/27/2021
Accepted: 8/22/2021 
Published: 9/24/2021 

Dr. Aljohara Fahad Al Saud is an assistant professor of Early Childhood, Department of Early Childhood, College of Education, King Saud University. She has published several papers in national and international journals. She is a member of many international Educational associations. Her research interest includes early childhood, language identity, language affiliation. Her orcid account is 0000-0002-8806-0694