Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 13. Number2.  June 2022                                                    Pp.17- 36

 Full Paper Pdf


Factors Influencing Secondary English as a Second Language Teachers’ Intentions to
Utilize Google Classroom for Instructions during the Covid-19 Pandemic


Mohd Haniff Mohd Tahir1 , Mohamad Syafiq Ya Shak2, Airil Haimi Mohd Adnan2, Dianna
Suzieanna Mohamad Shah2, Muhamad Fadzllah Zaini1 , Loh Yoke Ling1,
Shushma Devi Piaralal3 

1Faculty of Languages and Communication
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Perak, Malaysia

2Academy of Language Studies
Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Perak Branch, Perak, Malaysia

3Department of English Language,
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Buntong, Perak, Malaysia


Received: 1/22/2022                          Accepted:  5/19/2022                         Published: 6/24/2022


Google Classroom (GC) is a technical innovation that allows English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers and students to meet remotely to create a more engaging teaching and learning experience. This study investigated factors influencing ESL teachers’ intentions to utilize GC for instructions during the Covid-19 pandemic. An exploratory sequential technique was implemented as part of a mixed-methods research design. Eleven prior studies on educators’ views toward the use of GC were evaluated for the qualitative data analysis. The data from these investigations were analysed and categorized into topics and categories. The findings revealed that ESL teachers had a positive attitude toward utilizing GC with their pupils. For the quantitative data analysis, a research survey was performed. Technical support, attitude, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and technological knowledge were studied as factors that impacted ESL teachers’ intentions to use GC. The sample includes 216 government secondary schools in the Kinta Selatan District of Perak. The outcomes of the study revealed that attitude, perceived usefulness, and technological knowledge all influenced the desire to use GC. The link between technical support and perceived ease of use, as well as the desire to use GC, was found to be negative. In linking the factors that determine GC intention, future research might incorporate a variety of moderating variables. The study’s findings might assist educators to understand the challenges of online learning in Malaysian education, as well as how to overcome them.
Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, Google Classroom, influencing factors, instructions, secondary ESL teachers

Cite as:  Tahir, M.H.M., Shak, M. S.Y., Adnan, A. H.M., Shah, D. S.M., Zaini, M. F., Ling, L.Y., & Piaralal, S.D. (2022). Factors Influencing Secondary English as a Second Language Teachers’ Intentions to Utilize Google Classroom for Instructions during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Arab World English Journal, 13 (2) 17- 36.


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Received: 1/22/2022 
Accepted: 5/19/2022 
Published: 6/24/2022

Mohd Haniff Mohd Tahir, Ph.D., is a Senior Lecturer and internationally recognized researcher at the Faculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Malaysia. His focus area includes materials development and evaluation, interactive language teaching curriculum design, digital learning, and quantitative research related to ESL classrooms. Currently, he is exploring emerging ideas and concepts for vocabulary learning. ORCID ID

Mohamad Syafiq Ya Shak, is a member of the Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Perak Branch, Malaysia. His research interests include material development and evaluation, digital learning, corpus-based studies, and media. He holds a Master of Education (TESL) and is currently pursuing his Ph.D. in Education (TESL), examining CEFR-aligned textbooks in Malaysian schools. ORCID ID:

Airil Haimi Mohd Adnan, Ph.D., is a Senior Lecturer at the Academy of Language Studies (APB), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam and a Senior Principal Assistant Director at the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. His focus areas include languages-in-use and educational technologies. As a linguist and multidisciplinary social scientist, he has authored many books and chapters, and hundreds of articles. ORCID ID

Dianna Suzieanna Mohamad Shah lectures at the Academy of Language Studies (APB), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam and she is a university-wide Fellow for 360-degree and Video Learning with the Centre for Instructional Delivery and Learning Development (CIDL), UiTM. She holds a Master of Education (TESL) and is currently pursuing her Ph.D. in Education (TESL).

Muhamad Fadzllah Zaini, Ph.D., is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Malaysia. His areas of specialization are Corpus Linguistics, Computer Linguistics, and Machine Learning. He is active in industry grant research and international associations related to the Digital Humanities, Leaner Corpora Association, and IEEE. ORCID ID

Loh Yoke Lin, Ph.D., is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Malaysia. Her area of research includes studies on broadcasting and production, visual literacy, and documentary films. ORCID ID

Shushma Devi Piaralal, Ed.D., is a member of the English Language Department, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Buntong, Malaysia. She teaches and coaches high school learners for the past 20 years in technology and English language. Her research interests include ESL learning and teaching and the usage of technology in education.