Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 13. Number2. June 2022 Pp.17- 36
Factors Influencing Secondary English as a Second Language Teachers’ Intentions to
Utilize Google Classroom for Instructions during the Covid-19 Pandemic
Mohd Haniff Mohd Tahir1 , Mohamad Syafiq Ya Shak2, Airil Haimi Mohd Adnan2, Dianna
Suzieanna Mohamad Shah2, Muhamad Fadzllah Zaini1 , Loh Yoke Ling1,
Shushma Devi Piaralal3
1Faculty of Languages and Communication
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Perak, Malaysia
2Academy of Language Studies
Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Perak Branch, Perak, Malaysia
3Department of English Language,
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Buntong, Perak, Malaysia
Received: 1/22/2022 Accepted: 5/19/2022 Published: 6/24/2022
Google Classroom (GC) is a technical innovation that allows English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers and students to meet remotely to create a more engaging teaching and learning experience. This study investigated factors influencing ESL teachers’ intentions to utilize GC for instructions during the Covid-19 pandemic. An exploratory sequential technique was implemented as part of a mixed-methods research design. Eleven prior studies on educators’ views toward the use of GC were evaluated for the qualitative data analysis. The data from these investigations were analysed and categorized into topics and categories. The findings revealed that ESL teachers had a positive attitude toward utilizing GC with their pupils. For the quantitative data analysis, a research survey was performed. Technical support, attitude, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and technological knowledge were studied as factors that impacted ESL teachers’ intentions to use GC. The sample includes 216 government secondary schools in the Kinta Selatan District of Perak. The outcomes of the study revealed that attitude, perceived usefulness, and technological knowledge all influenced the desire to use GC. The link between technical support and perceived ease of use, as well as the desire to use GC, was found to be negative. In linking the factors that determine GC intention, future research might incorporate a variety of moderating variables. The study’s findings might assist educators to understand the challenges of online learning in Malaysian education, as well as how to overcome them.
Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, Google Classroom, influencing factors, instructions, secondary ESL teachers
Cite as: Tahir, M.H.M., Shak, M. S.Y., Adnan, A. H.M., Shah, D. S.M., Zaini, M. F., Ling, L.Y., & Piaralal, S.D. (2022). Factors Influencing Secondary English as a Second Language Teachers’ Intentions to Utilize Google Classroom for Instructions during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Arab World English Journal, 13 (2) 17- 36.
Al-Alak, B. A., & Alnawas, I. A. (2011). Measuring the acceptance and adoption of e-learning by academic staff.
Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, 3(2), 201-221.
Alim, N., Linda, W., Gunawan, F., & Md Saad, M. S. (2019). The effectiveness of Google Classroom as an instructional media:
A case of State Islamic Institute of Kendari, Indonesia. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 7(2), 240-246. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7227
AlQudah, A. A. (2014). Accepting Moodle by academic staff at the University of Jordan: Applying and extending
TAM in technical support factors. European scientific journal, 10(18), 183- 200.
Amin, H. (2008). Factors affecting the intentions of customers in Malaysia to use mobile Phone credit cards. Management Research News, 31(7), 493-503.
Apriyanti, D., Syarif, H., Ramadhan, S., Zaim, M., & Agustina, A. (2019). Technology-based
Google classroom in English business writing class. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Languages and Arts (ICLA 2018), 301, 689–694. https://doi.org/10.2991/icla-18.2019.113.
Archambault, L. M., & Barnett, J. H. (2010). Revisiting technological pedagogical content knowledge: Exploring the TPACK
framework. Computers & Education, 55(4), 1656- 1662.
Brown, M. C. (2018). Google Classroom for the online classroom: An assessment. Distance Learning. 15(3), 51-56.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative (4th ed.). England: Pearson Education Limited.
Davis, F. D. (1989). PU, PEOU, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quart. 13(3) 319–339.
De Vynck, G. & Bergen, M. (2020). Google Classroom users doubled as quarantines spread.
Retrieved from https://www.bloombergquint.com/business/google- widens-lead-in- education-market-as-students-rush-online
Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal, 57(4), 344-351.
Inoue, M., & Pengnate, W. (2018, May). Belief in foreign language learning and satisfaction with using Google classroom to submit online homework of undergraduate students. 5th International Conference on Business and Industrial Research Proceedings, 618-621.
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. (3rd ed.).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Kite, J., Schlub, T. E., Zhang, Y., Choi, S., Craske, S., & Dickson, M. (2020). Exploring lecturer and student perceptions and
use of a learning management system in a postgraduate public health environment. E-Learning and Digital Media, 17(3), 183–198. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042753020909217
Koh, J. H. L., & Kan, R. Y. P. (2020). Perceptions of learning management system quality, satisfaction, and usage: Differences among students of the arts. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 36(3), 26-40.
Krejcie, R. V, & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities Robert. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 38(1), 607–610.
Kumar, J. A., & Bervell, B. (2019). Google classroom for mobile learning in higher education: Modelling the initial perceptions of students. Education and Information Technologies, 24, 1793–1817. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-09858-z
Mafa, K. R. (2018). Capabilities of Google Classroom as a teaching and learning tool in higher education. International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering, 5(5), 30-34.
Ndibalema, P. (2014). Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) as a Pedagogical Tool in Secondary Schools in Tanzania: The Case of Kondoa District. International Journal of Education and Research, 2, 1-16.
Nurhayati, F. K., Tarjana, S. S., & Hersulastuti, H. (2018) Teachers’ perceptions toward the implementation of 2013 Curriculum. Proceedings of the 2nd English Language and Literature International Conference (ELLiC), 76-87. Retrieved from https://jurnal.unimus.ac.id/index.php/ELLIC/article /download/3487/3343
Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research,
Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS, 6th ed: Open University Press, Maidenhead.
Plackett, R. L. (1983). Karl Pearson and the chi-squared test. International Statistical Review/Revue Internationale de Statistique,
Rajaendram, R. (2019, June 29). Google Classroom gets nod. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2019/06/ 29/google-classroom-gets-nod
Ramazani, M. (2012). Teachers’ perceptions of using English textbooks for Iranian technical and vocational college students. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1748- 1762.
Ribeiro, J. M., Moreira, A., & Almeida, A. M. P. (2011). Stakeholders’ perceptions of the use of ICT in the education of students with SEN. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 3(3), 242-254.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2011). Research methods for business students. India.
Sekaran, U. (2006). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Sudarsana, I. K., Putra, I. B. M. A., Astawa, I. N. T., & Yogantara, I. W. L. (2019). The use of Google Classroom in the learning process. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1175(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1175/1/012165
Tahir, M. H. M., Albakri, I. S. M. A., Adnan, A. H. M., & Karim, R. A. (2020). The effects of explicit vocabulary
instructions on secondary ESL students’ vocabulary learning. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature. The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 26 (2), 158-172.
Tahir, M. H. M., Albakri, I. S. M. A., Adnan, A. H. M., Shah, D. S. M., & Shaq, M. S. Y. (2020). The application of Visual
Vocabulary for ESL students’ vocabulary learning. Arab World English Journal, 11 (2), 323-338.
Tahir, M. H. M., & Mohtar, T. M. T. (2016). The effectiveness of using vocabulary exercises to teach vocabulary to ESL/EFL learners. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 24 (4), 1651-1669.
Ventayen, R. J. M., Estira, K. L. A., De Guzman, M. J., Cabaluna, C. M., & Espinosa, N. N. (2018). Usability evaluation
of Google Classroom: Basis for the adaptation of GSuite e-learning platform. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts,
and Sciences, 5(51), 47–51.
Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th ed.). (WISC-IVCDN). Toronto, ON: The Psychological Corporation.
Zikmund, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & Griffin, M. (2013). Business Research Methods. CENGAGE Learning Custom Publishing.