Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 14. Number 2 June 2023                                             Pp.236 -253

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Exploring the Use of Gibbs’ Reflective Model in Enhancing In-Service ESL
Teachers’ Reflective Writing

Siti Noor Aneeis Hashim
Language Department, Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Perlis,

 Aizan Yaacob
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

Ina Suryani
Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Ariel Vehicle,
Faculty of Business and Communication, Universiti Malaysia Perlis
Corresponding Author:

Ratnawati Mohd Asraf
Kuliyyah of Education. International Islamic University Malaysia

Zolkefli Bahador
School of Education, Universiti Utara Malaysia

Nadya Supian
University Tunku Abdul Rahman


Received: 02/13/2023            Accepted:05/24/2023                     Published:  06/24/2023


While the importance of reflective writing is widely acknowledged worldwide, the lack of exposure to systematic reflective models to enhance reflexivity is a major concern among in-service teachers in many developing countries. This paper presents a qualitative case study that aimed to explore the elements reflected by a group of English as a Second Language in-service teachers through their reflective writing. Specifically, it explored how the in-service teachers wrote reflections before Gibb’s reflective model was introduced to them as well as examined to what extent the systematic model managed to help them write better reflections. This study contributed to the body of knowledge on reflective writing among in-service teachers. Gibbs’ reflective model was introduced as a systematic framework to guide their reflective writing for eight weeks. Multiple methods such as semi-structured interviews, reflection logs and field notes were collected and thematically analysed. The findings indicated that the teachers managed to write better reflections on their teaching after using the model.  The teachers reported that Gibb’s reflective model provided clearer guidelines for writing reflection, minimized difficulties in the evaluation and analysis of their teaching, and provided a space for thinking about their action plans. Gibbs’s reflective model can be used as a tool to enhance ESL teachers’ reflexivity and professional development.
Keywords: English as a second language, Gibbs reflective model, in-service teachers, primary school, reflective writing

Cite as:   Hashim, S.N.A., Yaacob, A., Suryani, I., Mohd Asraf, R., Bahador,Z., & Supian, N.  (2023). Exploring the Use of Gibbs’ Reflective Model in Enhancing In-Service ESL Teachers’ Reflective Writing.  Arab World English Journal, 14 (2) 236 -253.


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Received: 02/13/2023 
Accepted: 05/24/2023
Published: 06/24/2023

Siti Noor Aneeis Hashim is a Lecturer Language Department, Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Perlis. She lectures in curriculum and instructions. Her research interest includes reflective writing, in-service teachers, primary school and English for Second Language.

 Aizan Yaacob is an Associate Professor at UUM Kuala Lumpur. She delivers lecture in English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Her areas of specialization include ELT, Applied Linguistics, Bilingualism, and qualitative research. She is currently the Editor-in-Chief for Practitioner Research. She has published widely in national and international journals in her field. ORCID ID:

 Ina Suryani is an associate professor and she teaches English for Special Purposes and Technical Writing at the Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Ariel Vehicle, Faculty of Business and Communication, Universiti Malaysia Perlis. Her research areas are in Genre Analysis and Text Analysis. ORCID ID:

 Ratnawati Mohd Asraf is a professor at the Kulliyyah of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). She was formerly the Chief Editor of Educational Awakening: Journal of the Behavioural Sciences, IIUM and the Director of the Research Management Centre, IIUM. ORCID ID:   

 Zolkefli Bahador is a lecturer at School of Education, Universiti Utara Malaysia, His research interests include e-learning and instructional technology.  ORCid ID: 0009-0007-5365-4365

 Nadya Supian is currently Assistant Professor with the Department of Modern Languages, Faculty of Creative Industries in Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman. Her research interests include metacognition in language learning, mobile assisted language learning, vocabulary acquisition, critical thinking, game-based language learning and semiotics. ORCID ID: