Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 11. Number4 December 2020 Pp.328-350
Exploring the Effect of Using WhatsApp on Saudi Female EFL Students’ Idiom-Learning
College of Languages and Translation
Al-Imam Mohammed Bin Saud Islamic University
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
The study aimed at investigating the effect of using WhatsApp-based learning activities on developing idiom knowledge among Saudi university English as a foreign language (EFL) students compared to conventional method. It also examined the students’ perceptions towards the application of WhatsApp in idiom-learning. The rationale for conducting this study is to provide students with useful learning tools that may improve their idiomatic knowledge and also help them to practice English idioms anytime and anywhere outside the classroom. It also aimed to help teachers to streamline EFL instruction, making it more efficient, effective, and user-friendly. As such, the main research questions are what is the effect of WhatsApp-based learning activities on developing university female EFL students? and what are Saudi female EFL students’ perceptions on learning idioms using WhatsApp?. To answer these questions, 70 EFL female students in the Department of English Language and literature at Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU) involved in the study. They were assigned into two groups; experimental group, who was taught English idioms via WhatsApp-based learning activities, and control group, who was taught English idioms conventionally in classroom. Two instruments were used to collect the data; a pre-post idioms achievement test and a post-study questionnaire. The findings demonstrated that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in idioms achievement post-test. Moreover, the results showed that the majority of the experimental group had a positive perception towards learning English idioms via WhatsApp.
Keywords: idiomatic expression, mobile assisted language learning, Saudi female EFL students, students’ perceptions, WhatsApp
Cite as: Almogheerah, A. (2020). Exploring the Effect of Using WhatsApp on Saudi Female EFL Students’ Idiom-Learning Arab World English Journal, 11 (4) 328-350.
Alghamdy, R. Z. (2019). The impact of mobile language learning (WhatsApp) on EFL context: Outcomes and perceptions. International Journal of English Linguistics, 9(2), 128–135. 10.5539/ijel.v9n2p128
Alhaysony, M. H. (2017). Strategies and difficulties of understanding English idioms: A case study of Saudi University EFL students. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(3), 70-84. 10.5539/ijel.v7n3p70
Al-Kadi, A. M. T. (2015). Towards idiomatic competence of Yemeni EFL undergraduates. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 6(3), 513-523. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0603.06
Aloraini, N., & Cardoso, W. (2018). Social media in language learning: A mixed-methods investigation of Saudi students’ perceptions. In P. Taalas, J. Jalkanen, L. Bradley & S. Thouësny (Eds), Future-proof CALL: language learning as exploration and encounters (pp. 1-5). Research-publishing.net. https://doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2018.26.803
Alqahtani, S. M., Bhaskar, C. V., Vadakalur Elumalai, K., & Abumelha, M. (2018). WhatsApp: An online platform for university-level English language education. Arab World English Journal, 9(4), 108-121. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol9no4.7
Alsaleem, B. I. A. (2013). The effect of” WhatsApp” electronic dialogue journaling on improving writing vocabulary word choice and voice of EFL undergraduate Saudi students. Arab World English Journal, 4(3), 213-225
Alshabeb, A., & Almaqrn, R. (2018). A study of EFL Saudi students’ use of mobile social media applications for learning. Arab World English Journal, (4), 214-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3226723
Alshammari, R., Parkes, M., & Adlington, R. (2017). Using WhatsApp in EFL instruction with Saudi Arabian university students. Arab World English Journal, 8 (4), 68-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3094526
Amer, M. A. (2010). Idiomobile for learners of English: A study of learners’ usage of a mobile learning application for learning idioms and collocations, (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania. 10.11139/cj.31.3.285-302
Andreou, G., & Galantomos, L. (2008). Designing a conceptual syllabus for teaching metaphors and idioms in a foreign language context. Porta Linguarum: revista internacional de didáctica de las lenguas extranjeras, (9), 69-78.
Ashiyan, Z., & Salehi, H. (2016). Impact of WhatsApp on learning and retention of collocation knowledge among Iranian EFL learners. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7(5), 112-127.
Basal, A., Yilmaz, S., Tanriverdi, A., & Sari, L. (2016). Effectiveness of mobile applications in vocabulary teaching. Contemporary Educational Technology, 7(1), 47-59. DOI: 10.30935/cedtech/6162
Batawi, G. (2019). WhatsApp as a tool for meaning negotiation: The use of web-enabled phones to consolidate vocabulary learning among university students in Saudi Arabia, (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). University of Southampton, England http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/432270
Bensalem, E. (2018). The impact of WhatsApp on EFL students’ vocabulary learning. Arab World English Journal, 9(1), 23-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3150707
Baishya, D., & Maheshwari, S. (2020). WhatsApp Groups in Academic Context: Exploring the Academic Uses of WhatsApp Groups among the Students. Contemporary Educational Technology, 11(1), 31-46. https://doi.org/10.30935/cet.641765
Boers, F., Eyckmans, J., Kappel, J., Stengers, H., & Demecheleer, M. (2006). Formulaic sequences and perceived oral proficiency: Putting a lexical approach to the test. Language Teaching Research, 10(3), 245-261. https://doi.org/10.1191/1362168806lr195oa
Brown, J. D. (2004). 19 Research Methods for Applied Linguistics: Scope, Characteristics, and Standards. In A. Davies., & C. Elder (eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 476-478). Malden and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Dehghan, F, Rezvani, R., & Fazeli, S. (2017).Social networks and their effectiveness in learning foreign language vocabulary: A comparative study using WhatsApp. CALL-EJ, 18(2), 1-13.
- Cakır, R., & Solak, E. (2015). Attitude of Turkish EFL learners towards e-Learning through Tam Model. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 176, 596-601. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.515
Çam, B., & Can, Y. (2019). The Effect of “WhatsApp” usage on the attitudes of students toward English self-efficacy and English courses in foreign language education outside the school. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(3), 247–256. http://doi.org/10.26822/iejee.2019349249
Castrillo, M. D., Martín-Monje, E., & Bárcena, E. (2014). New Forms of Negotiating Meaning on the Move: The Use of Mobile-Based Chatting for Foreign Language Distance. IADIS International Journal on WWW/Internet, 12(2), 51-67.
Çetinkaya, L., & Sütçü, S. S. (2018). The effects of Facebook and WhatsApp on success in
English vocabulary instruction. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 34(5), 504-
Chang, S. C., & Tung, F. C. (2008). An empirical investigation of students’ behavioural intentions to use the online learning course websites. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(1), 71-83. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00742.x
Chen, Ch. M., & Chung, Ch. J. (2008). Personalized mobile English vocabulary learning system based on item-response theory and learning memory cycle. Journal of Computer and Education, 51(2), 624-645. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2007.06.011
Chen, Y. C., & Lai, H. L. (2013). Teaching English Idioms as Metaphors through Cognitive-Oriented Methods: A Case in an EFL Writing Class. English Language Teaching, 6(6), 13-20.
Chinnery, G. M. (2006). Going to the MALL: mobile assisted language learning (Emerging technology). Language Learning & Technology, 10(1), 9-16.
Chung, H. H., Chen, S. C., & Kuo, M. H. (2015). A study of EFL college students’ acceptance of mobile learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 176, 333-339. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.479
Compeau, D. R., & Higgins, C. A. (1995). Computer self-efficacy: development of a measure and initial test. MIS Quarterly, 19( 2), 189–211. https://www.jstor.org/stable/249688
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS quarterly,13(3), 319-340. https://www.jstor.org/stable/249008
Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Management science, 35(8), 982-1003. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.35.8.982
Fageeh, A. A. I. (2013). Effects of MALL applications on vocabulary acquisition and motivation. Arab World English Journal, 4(4), 420-447.
Fattah, A. (2015). The Effectiveness of Using WhatsApp Messenger as One of Mobile Learning Techniques to Develop Students’ Writing Skills. Journal of Education and practice, 6(32), 115-127.
Fodah, O., & Alajlan, H. (2015). A work in progress survey on mobile learning in higher education in Saudi Arabia. Proceedings of SITE 2015–Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/150215
Ghazala, H. (1993). The translation of collocations: English-Arabic. Trujuman, 2(2), 7-33.
Haghighi, H. (2017). The Effects of Two Technological Tools on Idiom Learning of Iranian EFL Learners: A MALL Perspective. Modern Language Studies Journal, 4(1), 1-12. http://publishing.kare.pub/article-19-156-en.html
Hamad, M. M. (2017). Using WhatsApp to Enhance Students’ Learning of English Language “Experience to Share”. Higher Education Studies, 7(4), 74-87. doi:10.5539/hes.v7n4p74
Hayati, A., Jalilifar, A., & Mashhadi, A. (2013). Using short message service (SMS) to teach English idioms to EFL students. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(1), 66-81. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01260.x
Huang, Y. M., Huang, Y. M., Huang, S. H., & Lin, Y. T. (2012). A ubiquitous English vocabulary learning system: Evidence of active/passive attitudes vs. usefulness/ease-of-use. Computers & Education, 58(1), 273-282.
Jafari, S., & Chalak, A. (2016). The role of WhatsApp in teaching vocabulary to Iranian EFL learners at junior high school. English Language Teaching, 9(8), 85-92. doi: 10.5539/elt.v9n8p85
Karpisek, F., Baggili, I., Breitinger, F. (2015). WhatsApp network forensics: decrypting and understanding the WhatsApp call signaling messages. Digital Invest, 15,110-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diin.2015.09.002
Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Shield, L. (2008). An overview of mobile assisted language learning: From content delivery to supported collaboration and interaction. ReCALL, 20(3), 271-289. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344008000335
La Hanisi, A., Risdiany, R., Dwi Utami, Y., & Sulisworo, D. (2018). The use of WhatsApp in collaborative learning to improve English teaching and learning process. International Journal of Research Studies in Educational Technology, 7(1), 29-35. https://doi.org/10.5861/ijrset.2018.3004
Liontas, J. (2002). Context and idiom understanding in second languages. EUROSLA Yearbook, 2(1), 155-185. DOI: 10.1075/eurosla.2.11lio
Liu, D. (2017). Idioms: Description, comprehension, acquisition, and pedagogy. New York: Routledge.
Mahmoud, A. (2002). Interlingual transfer of idioms by Arab learners of English. The Internet TESL Journal, 8(12), 1-4.
Nesselhauf, N., & Tschichold, C. (2002). Collocations in CALL: An investigation of vocabulary-building software for EFL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 15(3), 251-279. https://doi.org/10.1076/call.188.8.131.5290
Noor, H., & Fallatah, M. (2010). An investigation of some difficulties in idioms encountered by Saudi learners of English. International Journal of Arabic-English Studies, 11, 147-174.
Paivio, A. (1971).Imagery and Verbal Processes, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York
Rahman, S., Ramakrishnan, T., & Ngamassi, L.(2019). Impact of social media use on student satisfaction in Higher Education. Higher Education Quarterly, 74(3), 304-319. https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12228
Rogers, E. M. (1995). The diffusion of innovation, fourth. New York: Free Press.
Schmitt, N. (2000). Vocabulary in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal of computer assisted learning, 21(3), 217-228. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2005.00129.x
Venkatesh V., & Davis, FD. (1996). A model of the antecedents of perceived ease of use: development and test. Decision sciences, 27(3), 451- 481.
Viberg, O., & Grönlund, Å. (2012). Mobile assisted language learning: A literature review. The 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, 55-61. diva2:549644
Yalcinalp, S., & Gulbahar, Y. (2010). Ontology and taxonomy design and development for personalised web-based learning systems. British Journal of Educational Technology,
41(6), 883–896. 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01049.x