Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 13. Number3.  September 2022                                     Pp.185-201

Full Paper PDF 

Exploring the Effect of Instructional Scaffolding on Foundation Level Students’
Writing at the City University College of Ajman: A Case Study

      Faiza Mohamed Tabib
General Education Department

City University College of Ajman

United Arab Emirates



Received: 06/14/2022                     Accepted: 8/13/2022                  Published:09/24/2022


The present research is a small-scale case study with a 15-week intervention aiming to identify lower intermediate language learners’ major writing challenges and explore the effect of instructional scaffolding on their writing skills and abilities. Scaffolding is central to the broader theories of constructivism and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. Nine Foundation Level students enrolled in an Intensive English Program at the City University College of Ajman, United Arab Emirates, participated in this study. This study is observational, descriptive, and interpretive. The researcher used three qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments: pre-and post-writing tests, a focus-group interview, and a student attitude questionnaire to triangulate and gain reliable, valid data. The findings revealed some major writing issues, including paucity of ideas, lack of grammatical and lexical knowledge, proper organization, and problems with spelling and punctuation. However, the pre-posttest results indicated improved students’ writing skills and abilities, mainly in task completion, paragraph organization, lexical range, and writing fluency. The study also finds that students need more time and practice to produce accurate and error-free essays. Accordingly, the researcher recommends engaging students in research-based strategies and activities in all writing phases to raise their awareness of grammatical and lexical mistakes, increase their learning and reflection, and boost their confidence.
Keywords: constructive feedback, interactive strategies, scaffolding, second language, language competence 

Cite as: Tabib, F. M. (2022). Exploring the Effect of Instructional Scaffolding on Foundation Level Students’ Writing at the City University College of Ajman: A Case Study. Arab World English Journal, 13 (3) .185-201.


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Received: 06/14/2022   
Accepted: 8/13/2022 
Published: 09/24/2022 

Faiza Mohamed Tabib is a 3rd year Ph.D. student. She obtained her MATESOL degree in 2011 from the American University of Sharjah, UAE. She presented numerous Educational papers from 2014- 2020. She currently works as an English instructor at the City University College of Ajman (CUCA), UAE. Her research agenda focuses on second language acquisition, academic writing, and online learning research. ORCiD;