Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 13. Number1.  March 2022                                   Pp. 117- 128

Full Paper PDF  


Exploring Learners’ and Teachers’ Preferences Regarding Written Corrective Feedback
Types in Improving Learners’ Writing Skill

Reguieg Fatima Zohra
 Department of English, Faculty of Foreign Languages
Algiers 2 University, Algeria
Corresponding Author:                             

  Hamitouche Fatiha
 Department of English, Faculty of Foreign Languages
Algiers 2 University, Algeria


Received: 12/16/2021                   Accepted:  2/6/2022                          Published: 3/24/2022


 Abstract :
The current research is significant. It aims to improve learners’ writing and facilitate their academic achievement. This study examines learners’ and teachers’ preferences to written corrective feedback types in enhancing EFL learners writing. The main research question is to investigate the likes of teaches and learners regarding written corrective feedback types in enhancing learners’ writing skills. The learners’ questionnaire and the teachers’ questionnaire were the instruments. The respondents responded to the questionnaires. The submission of the research instruments took place on November 2021 at Zaida Ben Aissa middle school. The findings have shown that learners prefer their writing to be corrected via unfocused, direct feedback while teachers like to use indirect, focused feedback on their learners’ writings.
Keywords: direct and indirect written feedback, EFL learners, focused and unfocused written feedback, preferences, writing skill

Cite as: Reguieg, F. Z., & Hamitouche, F.  (2022). Exploring Learners’ and Teachers’ Preferences Regarding Written Corrective Feedback Types in Improving Learners’ Writing Skill. Arab World English Journal, 13 (1) 117-128.


Aboubakr, M. (2016).Teachers’ and Students’ Preferences for Error Correction in EFL Writing,(Unpublished Master’s thesis).Nile Valley. Sudan

Aridah, A., Atmowardoyo, H.,& Salija, K. (2017). Teacher Practices and Students’ Preferences for Written Corrective Feedback and their Implications on Writing Instruction. International Journal of English Linguistics,7(1), 1923-8703.doi:10.5539/ijel.v7n1p112

Balachandran, A. (2017). Perspectives and Practices Regarding Written Corrective Feedback in Swedish Context, (Unpublished Master’s Thesis).Sweden.

Bitchener, J., &Knoch, U. (2008).The value of written corrective feedback for migrant and  International students. Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 409–431.DOI: 10.1177/1362168808089924

Bitchener, J., and Knoch, U. (2010). Raising the Linguistic Accuracy Level of Advanced L2 Learners with Written Corrective Feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 19(4)    207-217.DOI: 10.1016/J.JSLW.2010

Bitchener, J.,& Ferris, D. (2012). Written Corrective Feedback in Second Language Acquisition and Writing. (Ed.)Routledge

Chen, S., Nassaji, H., & Liu, Q. (2016). EFL Learners’ Perceptions and Preferences of Written Corrective Feedback: a case study of university students from Mainland China. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education,1(5), 1-17. DOI 10.1186/s40862-016-0010-y

Cohen, A.D., &Calvalcanti, M.C. (1990). Feedback on compositions: Teacher and student verbal reports. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 155-177). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cohen, A., & M. Calvalcanti (1990). Feedback on compositions: Teacher and student verbal   reports. Second Language Writing.
Research Insights for the Classroom,

Cohen, A. (1987). Student processing of feedback on their compositions. In A. Wenden, & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (Pp. 57-69). Englewood  Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

Cumming, A. (1995). Fostering writing expertise in ESL composition instruction: Modeling and evaluation. In Belcher & Braine, (eds.). Academic Writing in a Second Language: Essays on Research and Pedagogy (Pp. 375–397). Ablex Publishing Corporation

Diab, R. (2005). EFL University Students’ Preferences for Error Correction and Teacher Feedback on Writing. TESOL Reporter, 38(1), 27-51

Ellis, R., Sheen, Y., Murakami, M., &Takashima, H. (2008).The effects of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback in an English as a foreign language context. System, 36 (3), 353-371. DOI:

Ellis. R, (2008).A Typology of Written Corrective Feedback Types.ELT Journal,63(2), 97-107


Enginarlar, H. (1993). Student Response to Teacher Feedback in EFL Writing. System     


Farrokhi, F., &Sattapour, S., (2011).The Effects of Focused and Unfocused Written Corrective Feedback on Grammatical Accuracy of Iranian EFL Learners. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(12), 1797-1803. DOI:10.4304/tpls.1.12.1797-1803

Ferris, D. (1995). Student reactions to teacher response in multiple-draft composition   classrooms. TESOL      Quarterly,29(1), 33–53.

Ferris, D. R. (2003).Response to Student Writing: Implications for Second Language Students. London: Routledge.

Ferris, D.R. (2004). The Grammar Correction Debate in L2 Writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime … ?) Journal of Second Language Writing, 13, 49-62.DOI:

Greenberg, K.L. (1988). Effective writing choices and conventions. New York: St. Martin’s Press

Hanaoka, O.,& Shinichi I., (2012). Noticing and uptake: Addressing pre-articulated covert problems in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21(4), 332- 347.

Hedgcock, J.,& N. Lefkowitz (1994). Feedback on feedback: Assessing learner receptivity to teacher response in L2 composing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 3(2), 141– 163.DOI:

Hedgcock, J., &Lefkowitz, N. (1996). Some Input on Input: Two Analyses of Student Response to    Expert Feedback in L2. The Modern Language Journal,80(3), 287-  308.     DOI:

Horowitz, D. (1986). Process not product: Less than meets the eye. TESOL Quarterly, 20(1)  141-    144.

Hyland, F. (1998).The impact of teacher written feedback on individual writers. Journal of  Second     Language Writing,7(3), 255–286.DOI:       3743(98)90017-0

Hyland, F. (2011). Language learning potential of form-focused feedback on writing: Students’ and teachers’ perceptions. In R. M. Manchón (ed.), Learning-to-write and Writing to-learn in an Additional  Language (pp.159-180). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Jahbel, K.; Latief, M. A., Cahyono, B. Y.,& Abdalla, S. N. (2020).Exploring University Students’ Preferences towards Written Corrective Feedback in EFL Context in Libya. Universal Journal of Educational Research,8(12A).pp 7775-7782. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.082565

Romava, Z., & Andrew, M. B. (1995).Teaching classroom and authentic genres: Initiating students into academic cultures and discourses. Assessing Writing, 16(2),277–291.

James, C. (1998). Errors in language learning and use: Exploring error analysis. London:  ongman.

Katayama, Akemi. (2007). Students’ perceptions of oral error correction. Japanese Language and  Literature,41(1), 61-92. DOI :

Klimova, B. F. (2013).The Importance of Writing. Paripex Indian Journal of Research, 2(1) 9-11.University of Hradec Kralove.

Lalande, J.F. II (1982). Reducing Composition Errors: An Experiment. The ModernLanguage   Journal,66(2), 140-149. DOI :

Lee, I. (2004). Error correction in L2 secondary writing classrooms: The case of Hong Kong. Journal of Second Language Writing,13(4), 285–312.DOI:

Lee, I. (2005). Error correction in the L2 writing classroom: What do students think? TESL Canada Journal, 22(2), 1-16. DOI:

Leki, I. (1991). The preferences of ESL students for error correction in college level writing classes. Foreign Language Annals, 24(3), 203–218. DOI:

Noora, A. (2008). Iranian Non-English Majors’ Language Learning Preferences: The Role of   Language Institutes.
GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 8(2), 33-44

Radecki, P. M., & Swales, J. M. (1988).ESL student reaction to written comments on their written work.
System, 16(3), 355-365.DOI: 251X(88)90078-4

Sheen, Y. (2007). The Effects of Corrective Feedback, Language Aptitude, and Learner Attitudes on the Acquisition of English Articles. In A. Mackey (Ed.) Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: a collection of empirical studies (pp. 301-322). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shintani, N., Ellis. R., & Suzuki, W. (2014) Effects of Written Feedback and Revision on Learners’Accuracy in Using Two English Grammatical Structures. Language Learning,64(1), 103-131. DOI:

Schulz, R. (1996). Focus on form in the foreign language classroom: Students’ and teachers’ views on error correction and the role of grammar. Foreign Language Annals,29(3), 343-364. DOI:

Van Beuningen, C., De Jong, N. H., and Kuiken, F (2012).Evidence on the Effectiveness of Comprehensive Error Correction in Second Language. Writing.   Language Learning, 62(1), 1-41.DOI:

Wang, P. (2010). Dealing with English majors written errors in Chinese universities. Journal  of Language Teaching and Research,
1(3), 194-205. DOI:10.4304/jltr.1.3.194-205

Zhang, T., Chen, X., Hu, J., & Ketwan, P. (2021). EFL Students’ Preferences for Written  Corrective Feedback: Do Error Types, Language Proficiency, and Foreign Language Enjoyment. Matter. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.Available at           



Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on tumblr
Share on reddit
Share on email
Share on stumbleupon
Share on digg
Received: 12/16/2021
Accepted: 2/6/2022   
Published: 3/24/2022 
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on tumblr
Share on digg
Share on email
Share on reddit
Share on stumbleupon
Share on vk

REGUIEG Fatima Zohra is a teacher of English at middle school. She has been teaching English for five years. She is also a PhD candidate specialized in Applied Linguistics and TEFL at Algiers 2 university, Algeria. She earned her undergraduate degrees “BA” and “MA” from the University of Lounici Ali. Her research interests include feedback and assessment.
ORCid ID: 

Prof. HAMITOUCHE Fatiha is a professor at Algiers 2 university, Algeria. She has been teaching different courses in the faculty of languages, department of English. She is a teacher and a supervisor for undergraduate and postgraduate learners. She has supervised various dissertations and her research interests include applied linguistics.