Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL Number 9. July 2023                     Pp. 234-248

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  ESL Learners’ Qualitative Perspective on Learner-to-Instructor Interaction in
Blended Environment

 Sangeeth Ramalingam
Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Language Department, Kolej Poly Tech Mara Bangi, Malaysia
Corresponding Author:

Melor Md Yunus
Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

 Harwati Hashim
Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia


 Received :03/27/2023              Accepted:07/06/2023              Published: 07/24/2023


English language proficiency exceptionally verbal communication is essential in achieving Sustainable Development Goal four, which is a good quality higher education. Nevertheless, past literature reported a lack of verbal communication among the graduates of English as a second language. Due to the emphasis on technology integration in Malaysian Education Blueprint 2015-2025, blended learning has been widely implemented in most tertiary institutions. However, learners complain they face challenges during verbal communication learning, particularly in learner-to-instructor interaction in a blended environment. Therefore, this study explores the learners’ opinions regarding learner-to-instructor interaction for verbal communication learning in a blended environment. The result of this research is substantial to English language instructors, curriculum designers, and English language learners as the input provides the information to understand the phenomenon in-depth and suggestions to improve verbal communication problems in learner-to-instructor interaction in the blended learning environment. The research question this study intends to answer is “What are the informants’ opinions on learner-to-instructor interaction for verbal communication learning in a blended environment?”.This study employed qualitative research inquiry, particularly phenomenological design, and the data was collected through semi-structured interviews, written accounts, and a focus group discussion. The data was then analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings revealed two significant themes related to the phenomenon: the roles of the instructor and the issues in the learner-to-instructor interaction as well as six sub-themes. Future studies might consider including English language instructors to obtain different perspectives.
Keywords: blended learning, English as a second language, learner-to-instructor interaction, verbal
communication, qualitative perspective

Cite as: Ramalingam, S., Yunus, M. M., & Hashim, H.   (2023). ESL Learners’ Qualitative Perspective on Learner-to-Instructor Interaction in Blended Environment.  Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL (9) 234-248.


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Received: 03/27/2023
Accepted: 07/06/2023 
Published: 07/24/2023 

Sangeeth Ramalingam is a Senior Lecturer at a private higher learner institution in Malaysia. She received Master Degree from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). Her academic background is English Language Studies. Currently, she is doing her Ph.D. in TESL at UKM. Her research interests include use of technology in education and language and TESL. ORCID:

Melor Md Yunus is a Professor at the Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. She holds a M.A. in TESL from the Arizona State University, USA. She then earned her Ph.D. in Education (TESL) from the University of Bristol, UK. Her areas of concentration are TESL, language pedagogy and the use of technology in TESL. ORCID:

Harwati Hashim is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). She holds M.Ed (TESL) and Phd.Ed (TESL) from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). She is an educational technology enthusiast and an e-learning practitioner. Her areas of concentration are ESL, Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL), and TESL.