Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 15. Number 1, March 2024                                             Pp.30-43

English Language Awareness of Distance and Face-to-Face Learners in Turkish Higher Education

School of Foreign Languages
Malatya Turgut Özal University, Malatya, Türkiye

Corresponding Author:

English Language Teaching Department
Faculty of Education
İnönü University, Malatya, Türkiye


The main aim of the current study is to explore the profiles of language awareness of distance and face-to-face EFL learners. The study sheds light on the need to consider the effects of language awareness in distance and face-to-face education as language awareness is essential in foreign language learning in both education types and needs to be improved to make learners know much about how to use English. The main question addressed by the research is whether there are any differences between the language awareness of distance and face-to-face EFL learners regarding course type, gender, and age. The context of the study is Türkiye, where English is taught as a foreign language in higher education institutions. The study uses a survey method and includes 157 language learners distance and 225 face-to-face, 382 learners attending a state university in Türkiye. The study’s results unveiled significant differences between distance and face-to-face language learners regarding language awareness. There was an apparent disparity between distance-learning and face-to-face approaches in linguistic awareness and communicative awareness, as the face-to-face learning group scored significantly higher in these dimensions. While distance and face-to-face learners had close scores in the dimensions of cultural awareness and metacognitive awareness, the findings revealed that face-to-face learners scored somewhat higher, which helps to explain how the physical classroom setting may have some influence on learners’ cultural sensitivity and metacognitive awareness. The results suggested that distance education learners should improve their consciousness about language and have the necessary instruction to enhance their language awareness.
Keywords: Distance education, face-to-face education, foreign language learning, higher education,
language awareness, language teaching

Cite as:

Kuluşaklı, E., & Genç, G. (2024). English Language Awareness of Distance and Face-to-Face Learners in Turkish Higher Education.  Arab World English Journal, 15(1): 30-43. DOI:


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Dr. Emine Kuluşaklı is an Assistant Professor in the School of Foreign Languages at Malatya Turgut Özal University, Malatya, Türkiye. She received her Master’s and Doctorate degrees in English Language and Literature. Her main interests are foreign language learning and teaching, learner autonomy, distance education, CALL, British Literature and studies in higher education.

Dr. Gülten Genç is an Associate Professor in the Department of Foreign Language Education at Inonu University, Malatya, Türkiye. She received her Master’s and Doctorate degrees in Educational Sciences. Her research focuses mainly on the professional development of foreign language teachers, language learners’ psychology, and intercultural communication.