Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL Number 9. July 2023                     Pp. 219-233

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Cognitive, Social, and Teaching Presences among Postgraduate Students on the Mobile
Instant Messaging Platform

 Siti Norzaimalina Abd Majid
Centre for Modern Languages, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia;
Language Academy, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
Corresponding author:

Abdul Rahim Salam
Language Academy, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities,
UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.


Received: 04/25/2023             Accepted: 07/06/3023             Published: 07/24/2023


This study examines the portrayal of cognitive, social, and teaching presence among postgraduate students using mobile instant messaging in a fully online learning environment. Understanding the portrayal of these presences can help researchers to gain insights into the specific dynamics of these presences and develop strategies to optimize the learning experience among postgraduate students. However, a lack of evidence on how cognitive, social, and teaching presence is portrayed in this platform makes it difficult to identify possible gaps where postgraduates may need more assistance. This study conducted a qualitative content analysis of 2074 messages from four groups on WhatsApp’s mobile instant messaging application. From the research, 68% of the messages demonstrated social presence, 25% teaching presence, and 7% indicated cognitive presence. The cognitive presence on WhatsApp was the least demonstrated, as students preferred rich mediums like video conferencing to engage in discussions that require higher-order thinking skills. Future research can consider analyzing how students show presences using multiple mediums and explore how cognitive, social, and teaching presences are dynamically interplayed in different mediums using a qualitative approach.
Keywords: cognitive presence, the community of inquiry, Mobile Instant Messaging platform, postgraduate
students, social presence, teaching presence

Cite as: Majid, S. N. A., &  Salam, A, R. (2023). Cognitive, Social, and Teaching Presences among Postgraduate Students on the Mobile Instant Messaging Platform.  Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on CALL (9) 219-233.


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Received: 04/25/2023
Accepted: 07/06/3023 
Published: 07/24/2023

Siti Norzaimalina Abd Majid is an English lecturer teaching ESL and EFL students at Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia. Currently, she is pursuing Ph.D. at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia. Her research interest includes language Learning Technology and Communication.  ORCID:

 Dr. Abdul Rahim Salam is an Associate Professor at Language Academy, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia. He is actively supervising Ph.D. research students, especially in the area related to Language Learning Technology and Communication.  ORCID: