Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 12. Number3   September 2021                                    Pp. 186-200

Full Paper PDF 

Bloometizing” the EFL Literature Classroom through a Dialogic Model:
A Barometer for Academic Change

Amina Bouali
Department of English, Faculty of Foreign Languages
Oran 2 University, Oran, Algeria


Received:   3/3/2021               Accepted: 9/3/2021                 Published: 9/24/2021


On the 21st century scent of educational development, ‘dialogism’ hogs the limelight of leading ‎‎academics, mapping ergo a stiff stronghold for active learning pedagogies. ‎Regarding the field of literature more sensibly considered in English as Foreign Language (EFL) ‎‎context, the plea for embracing interactive talks reverberates discernably in the air, yet, engaging ‎‎practices are still an overlooked real-world praxis. Given this reality, the current paper ‎endeavours ‎to endorse the implementation of a new dialogic model that extrapolates its foundation-‎stone ‎techniques from both of Bakhtin’s (1983) discursive dialogues and Socratic argumentations. The ‎pertinent ‎problematics in this study is to investigate the effect of this model on enhancing ‎learners’ higher-order critical thinking skills (HOTSs). To fulfil this target, the researcher has ‎embarked on an ‎Experimental Study based on a pre/post-testing, carried on painstakingly with ‎second-year EFL students ‎at Oran2 University, Algeria. Substantially, after appraising the ‎treatment results through SPSS, the ‎study reveals that adopting such a dialogic model is a robust ‎sinew for “Bloometizing” EFL ‎literature classroom, namely by stimulating and revitalizing the ‎learners’ cognitive reasoning potentials at ‎a very high complexity. Besides, in-class interactions ‎help the students build empathy with ‎literary texts and strengthen their analytical strategies. ‎From this vantage point, the paper, finally, hopes that teachers adopt this dialogic model as a ‎fitting instructional capstone to bringing literature ‎back to life before the learners’ eyes and to add ‎the ‘wow’ factor inside literature classrooms.‎
Keywords: Bakhtin’s discursive dialogues, dialogism, HOTSs, EFL literature classroom, Socratic‎ argumentations

Cite as: Bouali, A. (2021). “Bloometizing” the EFL Literature Classroom through a Dialogic Model:‎ A Barometer for Academic Change.
Arab World English Journal, 12 (3) 186-200.



Alam, M. M. (2013). Banking Model of Education in Teacher-Centered Class: A Critical Assessment. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(15), 27–31. Retrieved from

Alexander, R. (2020). A Dialogic Teaching Companion. New York, NY: Routledge.

Bakhtin, M. M. (1983). Discourse in the Novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), & C. Emerson (Trans.), The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (pp. 259–422). Austin: University

Bakhtin, M. (1984). Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Bakhtin, M. (2014). From the prehistory of novelistic discourse. In N. Wood & D. Lodge (Eds.), Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader (pp. 235–263). New York: Routledge.

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives | The Center for Teaching and Learning | UNC Charlotte. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2020, from

Commeyras, M. (1993). Promoting Critical Thinking through Dialogical-Thinking Reading Lessons. The Reading Teacher, 46(6), 486–494.

Delic, H., & Becirovic, S. (2016). Socratic Method as an Approach to Teaching. European Researcher, 111(10), 511–517.

Elder, L., & Paul, R. (1998). The Role of Socratic Questioning in Thinking, Teaching and Learning. In P. Freire (Ed.), Pedagogy of the Oppressed (pp. 297–302). New York: Continuum.

Fenner, A.-B. (2001). Dialogic Interaction with Literary Texts in the Lower Secondary Classroom. In A.-B. Fenner (Ed.), Cultural Awareness and Language Awareness Based on Dialogic Interaction with Texts in Foreign Language Learning (pp. 13–46). Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Ferguson, P. M., & Young, T. A. (1996). Literature Talk: Dialogue Improvisation and Patterned Conversations with Second Language Learners. Language Arts, 73(8), 597–600.

Foster, E. M. (1951, October 7). Sayings of the Week [Quotes].

Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum.

Freire, P., & Shor, I. (1987). A Pedagogy for Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education. Westport: CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Hayes, W. (1990). Critical Thinking through Literature: A Dialogue Teaching Model. Critical and Creative Thinking Capstones Collection, 140. Retrieved from

Koschmann, T. (2015). Toward a Dialogic Theory of Learning: Bakhtin’s Contribution to Understanding Learning in Settings of Collaboration. 1–12. Palo Alto, California: Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kozulin, A. (1996). A literary model for psychology. In D. Hicks (Ed.), Discourse, Learning, and Schooling (pp. 145–164). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Langer, J. A. (1995). Envisioning Literature: Literary Understanding and Literature Instruction. New York: Teachers College Press.

Larson, L. C. (2009). Reader Response Meets New Literacies: Empowering Readers in Online Learning Communities. The Reading Teacher, 62(8), 638–648.

Littleton, K., & Howe, C. (Eds.). (2010). Educational Dialogues: Understanding and Promoting Productive interaction. Routledge.

Littleton, K., & Mercer, N. (2013). Interthinking: Putting talk to work. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Lyle, S. (2008). Dialogic Teaching: Discussing Theoretical Contexts and Reviewing Evidence from Classroom Practice. Language and Education, 22(3), 222–240.

Morgan, C., & Cain, A. (2000). Foreign Language and Culture Learning from a Dialogic Perspective. Clevedon England: Multilingual Matters.

Murphy, P. K., Wilkinson, I. A. G., Soter, A. O., Hennessey, M. N., & Alexander, J. F. (2009). Examining the Effects of Classroom Discussion on Students’ Comprehension of Text: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 740–764.

Parker, W. C. (2010). Listening to Strangers: Classroom Discussion in Democratic Education. Teachers College Record, 112(11), 2815–2832.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2003). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. Dillon Beach, Calif: Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Renshaw, P. D. (2004). Dialogic teaching, learning and instruction: Theoretical roots and analytical frameworks. In J. van den Linden & P. D. Renshaw (Eds.), Dialogic Learning: Shifting Perspectives to Learning, Instruction, and Teaching (pp. 1–15). Dordrecht; New York: Springer.

Reznitskaya, A. (2012). Dialogic Teaching: Rethinking Language Use during Literature Discussions. Reading Teacher, 65(7), 446–456.

Reznitskaya, A., & Gregory, M. (2013). Student Thought and Classroom Language: Examining the Mechanisms of Change in Dialogic Teaching. Educational Psychologist, 48(2), 114–133.

Reznitskaya, A., Kuo, L.-J., Clark, A.-M., Miller, B., Jadallah, M., Anderson, R. C., & Nguyen‐Jahiel, K. (2009). Collaborative reasoning: A dialogic approach to group discussions. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(1), 29–48.

Schultz, J. M. (2001). The Gordian Knot: Language, Literature, and Critical Thinking. In V. M. Scott, H. Tucker, & S. S. Magnan (Eds.), SLA and the Literature Classroom: Fostering Dialogues, 2001 AAUSC Volume (pp. 3–31). Boston: Heinle.

Seymour, M., Thanos, T., Newell, G. E., & Bloome, D. (2020). Teaching Literature Using Dialogic Literary Argumentation. In Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group.

Skidmore, D., & Murakami, K. (2016). Dialogic Pedagogy: An Introduction. In D. Skidmore & K. Murakami (Eds.), Dialogic Pedagogy: The Importance of Dialogue in Teaching and Learning (pp. 1–16). Bristol ; Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.

Strickland, D. S., Dillon, R. M., Funkhouser, L., Glick, M., & Rogers, C. (1989). Research Currents: Classroom Dialogue During Literature Response Groups. Language Arts, 66(2), 192–200.

Weigand, E. (2004). Emotion in Dialogic Interaction: Advances in the Complex. Amsterdam ; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.

Wells, G. (2009). The Meaning Makers: Learning to Talk and Talking to Learn. Bristol, UK; Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

Wolfe, D., & Alexander, R. (2008). Argumentation and dialogic teaching: Alternative pedagogies for a changing world. London: Futurelab.

Woodruff, A., & Griffin, R. (2017). Reader response in secondary settings: Increasing comprehension through meaningful interactions with literary texts. Texas Journal of Literacy Education, 5(2), 108–116.


Received: 3/3/2021
Accepted: 9/3/2021
Published: 9/24/2021 

Dr Amina BOUALI is a senior lecturer at the University of Oran 2 in Algeria. She obtained her PhD in English Literature from the University of Tlemcen, Algeria. Professionally, her main areas of interest comprise Literature and Cultural Studies, Comparative Literature, and Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). DOI:‎15