Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 12. Number3   September 2021                                    Pp. 186-200

Full Paper PDF 

Bloometizing” the EFL Literature Classroom through a Dialogic Model:
A Barometer for Academic Change

Amina Bouali
Department of English, Faculty of Foreign Languages
Oran 2 University, Oran, Algeria


Received:   3/3/2021               Accepted: 9/3/2021                 Published: 9/24/2021


On the 21st century scent of educational development, ‘dialogism’ hogs the limelight of leading ‎‎academics, mapping ergo a stiff stronghold for active learning pedagogies. ‎Regarding the field of literature more sensibly considered in English as Foreign Language (EFL) ‎‎context, the plea for embracing interactive talks reverberates discernably in the air, yet, engaging ‎‎practices are still an overlooked real-world praxis. Given this reality, the current paper ‎endeavours ‎to endorse the implementation of a new dialogic model that extrapolates its foundation-‎stone ‎techniques from both of Bakhtin’s (1983) discursive dialogues and Socratic argumentations. The ‎pertinent ‎problematics in this study is to investigate the effect of this model on enhancing ‎learners’ higher-order critical thinking skills (HOTSs). To fulfil this target, the researcher has ‎embarked on an ‎Experimental Study based on a pre/post-testing, carried on painstakingly with ‎second-year EFL students ‎at Oran2 University, Algeria. Substantially, after appraising the ‎treatment results through SPSS, the ‎study reveals that adopting such a dialogic model is a robust ‎sinew for “Bloometizing” EFL ‎literature classroom, namely by stimulating and revitalizing the ‎learners’ cognitive reasoning potentials at ‎a very high complexity. Besides, in-class interactions ‎help the students build empathy with ‎literary texts and strengthen their analytical strategies. ‎From this vantage point, the paper, finally, hopes that teachers adopt this dialogic model as a ‎fitting instructional capstone to bringing literature ‎back to life before the learners’ eyes and to add ‎the ‘wow’ factor inside literature classrooms.‎
Keywords: Bakhtin’s discursive dialogues, dialogism, HOTSs, EFL literature classroom, Socratic‎ argumentations

Cite as: Bouali, A. (2021). “Bloometizing” the EFL Literature Classroom through a Dialogic Model:‎ A Barometer for Academic Change.
Arab World English Journal, 12 (3) 186-200.



Alam, M. M. (2013). Banking Model of Education in Teacher-Centered Class: A Critical Assessment. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(15), 27–31. Retrieved from

Alexander, R. (2020). A Dialogic Teaching Companion. New York, NY: Routledge.

Bakhtin, M. M. (1983). Discourse in the Novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), & C. Emerson (Trans.), The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (pp. 259–422). Austin: University

Bakhtin, M. (1984). Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Bakhtin, M. (2014). From the prehistory of novelistic discourse. In N. Wood & D. Lodge (Eds.), Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader (pp. 235–263). New York: Routledge.

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives | The Center for Teaching and Learning | UNC Charlotte. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2020, from

Commeyras, M. (1993). Promoting Critical Thinking through Dialogical-Thinking Reading Lessons. The Reading Teacher, 46(6), 486–494.

Delic, H., & Becirovic, S. (2016). Socratic Method as an Approach to Teaching. European Researcher, 111(10), 511–517.

Elder, L., & Paul, R. (1998). The Role of Socratic Questioning in Thinking, Teaching and Learning. In P. Freire (Ed.), Pedagogy of the Oppressed (pp. 297–302). New York: Continuum.

Fenner, A.-B. (2001). Dialogic Interaction with Literary Texts in the Lower Secondary Classroom. In A.-B. Fenner (Ed.), Cultural Awareness and Language Awareness Based on Dialogic Interaction with Texts in Foreign Language Learning (pp. 13–46). Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Ferguson, P. M., & Young, T. A. (1996). Literature Talk: Dialogue Improvisation and Patterned Conversations with Second Language Learners. Language Arts, 73(8), 597–600.

Foster, E. M. (1951, October 7). Sayings of the Week [Quotes].

Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum.

Freire, P., & Shor, I. (1987). A Pedagogy for Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education. Westport: CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Hayes, W. (1990). Critical Thinking through Literature: A Dialogue Teaching Model. Critical and Creative Thinking Capstones Collection, 140. Retrieved from

Koschmann, T. (2015). Toward a Dialogic Theory of Learning: Bakhtin’s Contribution to Understanding Learning in Settings of Collaboration. 1–12. Palo Alto, California: Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kozulin, A. (1996). A literary model for psychology. In D. Hicks (Ed.), Discourse, Learning, and Schooling (pp. 145–164). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Langer, J. A. (1995). Envisioning Literature: Literary Understanding and Literature Instruction. New York: Teachers College Press.

Larson, L. C. (2009). Reader Response Meets New Literacies: Empowering Readers in Online Learning Communities. The Reading Teacher, 62(8), 638–648.

Littleton, K., & Howe, C. (Eds.). (2010). Educational Dialogues: Understanding and Promoting Productive interaction. Routledge.

Littleton, K., & Mercer, N. (2013). Interthinking: Putting talk to work. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Lyle, S. (2008). Dialogic Teaching: Discussing Theoretical Contexts and Reviewing Evidence from Classroom Practice. Language and Education, 22(3), 222–240.

Morgan, C., & Cain, A. (2000). Foreign Language and Culture Learning from a Dialogic Perspective. Clevedon England: Multilingual Matters.

Murphy, P. K., Wilkinson, I. A. G., Soter, A. O., Hennessey, M. N., & Alexander, J. F. (2009). Examining the Effects of Classroom Discussion on Students’ Comprehension of Text: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 740–764.

Parker, W. C. (2010). Listening to Strangers: Classroom Discussion in Democratic Education. Teachers College Record, 112(11), 2815–2832.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2003). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. Dillon Beach, Calif: Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Renshaw, P. D. (2004). Dialogic teaching, learning and instruction: Theoretical roots and analytical frameworks. In J. van den Linden & P. D. Renshaw (Eds.), Dialogic Learning: Shifting Perspectives to Learning, Instruction, and Teaching (pp. 1–15). Dordrecht; New York: Springer.

Reznitskaya, A. (2012). Dialogic Teaching: Rethinking Language Use during Literature Discussions. Reading Teacher, 65(7), 446–456.

Reznitskaya, A., & Gregory, M. (2013). Student Thought and Classroom Language: Examining the Mechanisms of Change in Dialogic Teaching. Educational Psychologist, 48(2), 114–133.

Reznitskaya, A., Kuo, L.-J., Clark, A.-M., Miller, B., Jadallah, M., Anderson, R. C., & Nguyen‐Jahiel, K. (2009). Collaborative reasoning: A dialogic approach to group discussions. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(1), 29–48.

Schultz, J. M. (2001). The Gordian Knot: Language, Literature, and Critical Thinking. In V. M. Scott, H. Tucker, & S. S. Magnan (Eds.), SLA and the Literature Classroom: Fostering Dialogues, 2001 AAUSC Volume (pp. 3–31). Boston: Heinle.

Seymour, M., Thanos, T., Newell, G. E., & Bloome, D. (2020). Teaching Literature Using Dialogic Literary Argumentation. In Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group.

Skidmore, D., & Murakami, K. (2016). Dialogic Pedagogy: An Introduction. In D. Skidmore & K. Murakami (Eds.), Dialogic Pedagogy: The Importance of Dialogue in Teaching and Learning (pp. 1–16). Bristol ; Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.

Strickland, D. S., Dillon, R. M., Funkhouser, L., Glick, M., & Rogers, C. (1989). Research Currents: Classroom Dialogue During Literature Response Groups. Language Arts, 66(2), 192–200.

Weigand, E. (2004). Emotion in Dialogic Interaction: Advances in the Complex. Amsterdam ; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co.

Wells, G. (2009). The Meaning Makers: Learning to Talk and Talking to Learn. Bristol, UK; Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

Wolfe, D., & Alexander, R. (2008). Argumentation and dialogic teaching: Alternative pedagogies for a changing world. London: Futurelab.

Woodruff, A., & Griffin, R. (2017). Reader response in secondary settings: Increasing comprehension through meaningful interactions with literary texts. Texas Journal of Literacy Education, 5(2), 108–116.


Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on tumblr
Share on reddit
Share on email
Share on stumbleupon
Share on digg
Received: 3/3/2021
Accepted: 9/3/2021
Published: 9/24/2021 
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on tumblr
Share on digg
Share on email
Share on reddit
Share on stumbleupon
Share on vk

Dr Amina BOUALI is a senior lecturer at the University of Oran 2 in Algeria. She obtained her PhD in English Literature from the University of Tlemcen, Algeria. Professionally, her main areas of interest comprise Literature and Cultural Studies, Comparative Literature, and Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). DOI:‎15