Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 15. Number 1, March 2024                           Pp.214-232

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 An Investigation of How Foundation Learners Perceive Their Use of Learning Strategies

 Namirah Mohd Akahsah1 , *Najwa Azizun2 , Bharathi Vijayan3 , Hariati
Ibrahim @ Musa4
, Muhammad Ridhwan Saleh5 , Noor Hanim Rahmat6 

1,2,3Centre of Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus
4 Faculty of Law, University Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Kelantan, Kampus Machang
5Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, Gambang Campus
6Akademi Pengajian Bahasa, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Johor, Kampus Pasir
Corresponding author:


Received:08/16/2023         Accepted:01/18/2024                 Published:  03/2/2024

Transitioning from school to higher education institutions, learners may face many challenges, especially in coping with the new cultures of tertiary education. Learners entering universities come from a broad spectrum of diverse backgrounds, including various types of public and private secondary schools such as Full Boarding Schools, Vocational Colleges and Technical High Schools, Government-Aided Religious Schools, National Religious Secondary Schools, Sports Schools, Art Schools, The Royal Military Academy, MARA Junior Colleges of Science (MRSM), and many other private schools. Thus, it is pivotal that learning styles and strategies are redesigned to adapt to the demands of university education. The present study aims to discover the perception of learning strategy utilization among foundation studies learners. This quantitative research explores the relationship among cognitive, metacognitive self-regulation, and resource management as components of learning strategies as propounded by Wenden and Rubin (1987). A purposive sample of 297 participants, randomly selected among learners at the Centre of Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, responded to the survey. The survey utilized a 5-point Likert scale which comprises four sections. The results indicate that the three components of learning strategies positively correlate with one another. In addition, it is also found that metacognitive self-regulation positively influences learners by guiding them in supervising their learning process and resolving their confusion by referring back to their reading materials and seeking help from their peers. This finding is crucial to aid educators in employing suitable learning strategies for foundation learners to prepare them for their degree studies.
Keywords: cognitive skill, foundation study, learning strategies, metacognitive self-regulation, resource management

Cite as:  Akahsah, M.M., Azizun, N. ,Vijayan, B., Musa, H, I.  Saleh, M. R.,& Rahmat, N.H. (2024). An Investigation of How Foundation Learners Perceive Their Use of Learning Strategies. Arab World English Journal, 15(1): 214-232.


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Received: 08/16/2023
Accepted: 01/18/2024  
Published: 03/2/2024   

Namirah Mohd Akahsah has a master’s degree in Law from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. She is currently a Law Lecturer at the Centre of Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Dengkil Campus, with nearly 8 years of teaching experience. Her research interests lie in legal education, legal theories, and international law. Namirah has published articles and authored manual books specifically tailored for UiTM students, providing them with valuable resources for their legal studies. Outside the classroom, she actively participates in conferences and innovation competitions.

Najwa Azizun has a master’s degree in Law from Universiti Teknologi MARA. She is currently teaching law at the Centre of Foundation Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Dengkil Campus for 8 years. Her research interests include constitutional law, international law, land law and legal education. She also has published journal articles on various areas of law. Najwa has presented at conferences and participated in innovation competitions.

Bharathi Vijayan has a doctorate in teaching of English from Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, specializing in academic reading. She has 10 years of teaching experience and is currently working at Universiti Teknologi MARA, Dengkil Campus. She has taught English to international students as well as Malaysian students. Her research interests include language learning strategies, reading strategies, English for Academic Purposes and learning style. Bharathi has published journal articles on teaching and learning and has presented at conferences. ORCID:

Hariati Ibrahim Musa has a master’s degree in Law from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and currently teaching Law at Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Kelantan. She has been teaching law for almost 19 years in 2 public universities. Her research interests include human rights and legal education. She co-authored a book, wrote a chapter in a book and published articles in international journals including a Scopus indexed. She also presented at conferences and innovation competitions. ORCID:

Muhammad Ridhwan Saleh has a Master in Comparative Laws degree from International Islamic University Malaysia. He is currently a lecturer at the Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University, IIUM. His area of interest includes legal skills, legal writing and Islamic law. Besides presenting papers at national and international conferences, he also actively participated in various innovation competitions. ORCID:

 Noor Hanim Rahmat has a doctorate in TESL, specializing in Academic Writing. She is also an associate professor at the Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Johor Branch, Pasir Gudang Campus. She has taught for almost 30 years. Her research interests are in Academic Writing, TESL Methodology, Educational Psychology and Language Proficiency. She has published some chapters in books, and also a few solo-authored books. She has presented at conferences, both as a presenter and keynote speaker. ORCID: