Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) 2nd Special Issue on Covid 19 Challenges January 2022 Pp. 202-215
A Systematic Review of Online Learning during COVID 19: Students’ Motivation, Task
Engagement and Acceptance
Faculty of Education,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Corresponding Author: email@example.com
Melor Md Yunus
Faculty of Education
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Received: 8/4/2021 Accepted:12/28/2021 Published: 1/24/2022
The COVID 19 pandemic has forced the education sector to switch to online learning. To make the transition a success, there is a need to understand students’ perception towards online learning and design a learning experience around it. Thus, the aim of this paper is to identify students’ perceptions towards online learning in terms of motivation, task engagement and acceptance. The systematic literature review method was used to search for relevant papers and synthesize the findings. 40 articles from the year 2020 obtained from Google Scholar. It is found that the most used method in studying students’ perception is the quantitative method and students’ acceptance was the most discussed topic. It is also found that the primary factors influencing motivation and acceptance are sense of ownership and accessibility respectively. In terms of task engagement, only half of the findings reveal that students are engaged in online learning. In summary, the three main constructs are important items that should be taken into consideration when teaching an online course to ensure the success of the course. Through this systematic review, future research can identify and explore different areas and perspectives on this topic.
Keywords: acceptance, COVID-19, motivation, online learning, systematic review, task engagement
Cite as: Mohtar, M., & Md Yunus, M. (2022). A Systematic Review of Online Learning during COVID 19: Students’ Motivation, Task Engagement and Acceptance. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) 2nd Special Issue on Covid 19 Challenges (2) 202-215.
Abd Rahman, S. F., Yunus, M. M., & Hashim, H. (2019). A Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)L Malaysian ESL Lecturers’ Attitude in Adapting Flipped Learning. Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia 44(1), 43-54. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/JPEN-2019-44.01SI-04
Adnan, M., & Anwar, K. (2020). Online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Students’ perspectives . Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology 2(1), 45-51. http://www.doi.org/10.33902/JPSP. 2020261309
Alahmadi, N. S., & Alraddadi, B. M. (2020). The Impact of Virtual Classes on Second Language Interaction in the Saudi EFL Context: A Case Study of Saudi Undergraduate Students . Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) 11(3), 56-72. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol11no3.4
Alharbi, A. S., & Meccawy, Z. (2020). Introducing Socrative as a Tool for Formative Assessment in Saudi EFL Classrooms. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) 11(3), 372-384. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol11no3.23
Ali, W. (2020). Online and Remote Learning in Higher Education Institutes: A Necessity in light of COVID-19 Pandemic. Higher Education Studies 10(3), 16-25. DOI: 10.5539/hes.v10n3p16
Allam, S. N., Hassan, M. S., Mohideen, R. S., Ramlan, A. F., & Kamal, R. M. (2020). Online Distance Learning Readiness During Covid-19 Outbreak Among Undergraduate Students. International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences, 642-657.
Almoayad, F., Almuwais, A., Alqabbani, S. F., & Benajiba, N. (2020). Health Professional Students’ Perceptions and Experiences of Remote Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(8), 313-329. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.8.17
Almulhem, A. (2020). Investigating the effects of quality factors and organizational factors on university students’ satisfaction on e-learning system quality. Cogent Education, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2020.1787004
Al-Nofaie, H. (2020). Saudi University Students’ Perceptions towards Virtual Education During Covid-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of Language Learning via Blackboard. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) 11(3), 4-20. https://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awej/vol11no3.1
Bai, X., Ola, A., Reese, S., Eyob, E., & Bazemore, S. (2020). A Study Of The Effectiveness Of Remote Instruction From Students’ Perspectives. Issues in Information Systems, 21(4), 143-155.
Bedenlier, S., Bond, M., Buntins, K., Zawacki-Richter, O., & Kerres, M. (2020). Facilitating student engagement through educational technolgy in higher education: A systematic review in the field of arts and humanities. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 126-150.
Besser, A., Flett, G. L., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2020). Adaptability to a Sudden Transition to Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Understanding the Challenges for Students. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 1-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/stl0000198
Bestari, A. C., Faiza, D., & Mayekti, M. H. (2020). Instagram Caption As Online Learning Media On The Subject Of Extended Writing During Pandemic Of Covid 19. Surakarta English And Literature Journal, 3(1), 9-21.
Bond, M., Buntins, K., Bedenlier, S., Zawachi-Richter, O., & Kerres, M. (2020). Mapping research in student engagement and educational technology in higher education: a systematic evidence map. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 1-30. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-019-0176-8
Carter Jr, R. A., Rice, M., Jackson, Yang, S., & Jackson, H. A. (2020). Self-regulated learning in online learning environments: strategies for remote learning. Information and Learning Science, 121(5/6), 321-329. DOI 10.1108/ILS-04-2020-0114
Chen, T., Peng, L., Yin, X., Rong, J., Yang, J., & Cong, G. (2020). Analysis of User Satisfaction with Online Education Platforms in China during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Healthcare, 1-26. doi:10.3390/healthcare8030200
Chen, Z., Cao, H., Deng, Y., Gao, X., Piao, J., Xu, F., Zhang, Y. & Li, Y. (2020). A Large-Scale Mixed-Methods Analysis of Live Streaming Based Remote Education Experience in Chinese Colleges during the COVID-19 Pandemic. 1-23.
Chola, R., Kasimba, P., George, R., & Rajan, R. (2020). COVID-19 and E-learning: Perception of Freshmen Level Physics Students at Lusaka Apex Medical University. International Journal of Academic Research and Development, 5(4), 67-76.
Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolp, J., Malkawi, B., Glowatz, M., Burton, R., Magni, P. A. & Lam, S. (2020). COVID-19: 20 countries’ higher education intra-period digital pedagogy responses. Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching, 3(1), 9-28.
Cuschieri, S., & Agius, J. C. (2020). Spotlight on the Shift to Remote Anatomical Teaching During Covid-19 Pandemic: Perspectives and Experiences from the University of Malta. Anatomical Sciences Education, 1-9.
Daniel, J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Prospect 49, 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3
Elhadary, T., Elhaty, I. A., Mohamed, A. A., & Alawna, M. (2020). Evaluation of Academic Performance of Science and Social Science students in Turkish Universities during COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(11), 1740-1751.
Famularsih, S. (2020). Students’ Experiences in Using Online Learning Applications Due to COVID-19 in English Classroom. Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 112-121. https://doi.org/10.46627/silet
Gillis, A., & Krull, L. M. (2020). COVID-19 Remote Learning Transition in Spring 2020: Class Structures, Student Perception, and Inequality in College Courses. Teaching Sociology, 48(4), 283-299. DOI: 10.1177/0092055X20954263
Guo, J., Huang, F., Lou, Y., & Chen, S. (2020). Students’ perceptions of using mobile technologies in informal English learning during the COVID-19 epidemic: A study in Chinese rural secondary schools. Journal of Pedagogical Research , 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.33902/JPR.2020063786
Hasan, N., & Khan, N. H. (2020). Online Teaching-Learning During Covid-19 Pandemic: Students’ Perspective. The Online Journal of Distance Education and e-Learning, 8(4), 202-213.
Hattar, S., AlHadidi, A., Sawair, F. A., Abd Alraheam, I., El-Ma’aita, A., & Wahab, F. K. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on dental academia. Students’ experience in online education and expectations for a predictable practice. Research Square, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-54480/v1
Hebebci, M. T., Bertiz, Y., & Alan, S. (2020). Investigation of Views of Students and Teachers on Distance Education Practices during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic. International Journal of Technology in Education and Science, 4(4), 267-282.
Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020, March 27). The Difference Between Emergency Remote Teaching and Online Learning. From educause.edu: https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teaching-and-online-learning
Howard, S. K., Ma, J., & Yang, J. (2016). Student Rules: Exploring patterns of students’ computer-efficacy and engagement with digital technologies in learning. Computers & Education, 29-42.
Jett, C. C. (2020). The Qualms and Quarrels with Online Undergraduate Mathematics: The Experiences of African American Male STEM Majors. Investigations in Mathematics Learning, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/19477503.2020.1827663
Kaur, N. & Bhatt, M. S. (2020). The Face of Education and the Faceless Teacher Post COVID-19. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research 2(S), 39-48. https://doi.org/10.37534/bp.jhssr.2020.v2.nS.id1030.p39
Kerr, D., Ratcliff, J., Tabb, L., & Walter, R. (2019). Undergraduate nursing student perceptions of directed self-guidance in a learning laboratory: An educational strategy to enhance confidence and workplace readiness. Nurse Education in Practice 42, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2019.102669
Khalil, R., Mansour, A. E., Fadda, W. A., Almisnid, K., Aldamegh, M., Al-Nafeesah, A., Alkhalifah, A. & Al-Wutayd, O. (2020). The sudden transition to synchronized online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: a qualitative study exploring medical students’ persepctives. BMC Medical Education, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02208-z
Khan, K. S., Kunz, R., Kleijnen, J., & Antes, G. (2003). Five Steps to Conducting a Systematic Review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine , 118-121.
Khan, M. Y., & Tufail, H. (2020). An Investigation into the Effectiveness of MALL during COVID-19 at the Higher Education in Pakistani EFL Classrooms. Global Language Review, V(I), 175-185. doi:10.31703/glr.2020(V-I).19
Lin, X., & Gao, L. (2020). Students’ sense of community and perspectives of taking synchronous and asynchronous online courses. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 169-179. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3881614
Mulenga, E. M., & Marban, J. M. (2020). Is COVID-19 the Gateway for Digital Learning in Mathematics Education? Contemporary Educational Technology, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.30935/cedtech/7949
Mulenga, E. M., & Marban, J. M. (2020). Prospective Teachers’ Online Learning Mathematics Activities in The Age of COVID-19: A Cluster Analysis Approach. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(9), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/8345
Nambiar, D. (2020). The impact of online learning during COVID-19: students’ and teachers’ perspective. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 8(2), 783-793. DOI: 10.25215/0802.094
Oe, H., Takemoto, T., & Ridwan, M. (2020). Is Gamification a Magic Tool?: Illusion, Remedy, and Future Opportunities in Enhancing Learning Outcomes during and beyond the COVID-19. Budapest International Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education (BirLE) Journal, 3(3), 1401-1414. https://doi.org/10.33258/birle.v3i3.1198
Oh, J.-E., Chan, Y. K., & Kim, K. V. (2020). Social Media and E-Portfolios: Impacting Design Students’ Motivation Through Project-Based Learning. IAFOR Journal of Education: Undergraduate Education, 8(3), 41-58. DOI: 10.22492/ije.8.3.03
Qunfei, X., Abdullah, N., & Mustapha, S. M. (2020). The Influencing Factors And Incentive Measures Of College Students’ Online English Learning Motivation. Journal of Education and Social Sciences 15(2), 74-81.
Rahiem, M. D. H. (2020). The Emergency Remote Learning Experience of University Students in Indonesia amidst the COVID-19 Crisis. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(6), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.6.1
Ranellucci, J., & Bergey, B. W. (2020). Using Motivation Design Principles to Teach Screencasting in Online Teacher Education Courses. Jl. of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 393-401.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development and Well-Being. American Psychologist, 68-78. DOI: 10.1037110003-066X.55.1.68
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2020). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation from a Self-Determination Theory Perspective: Definitions, theory, practices and future directions. Contemporary Educational Pyschology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101860
Ryan, R. M., Ryan, W. S., Di Domenico, S. I., & Deci, E. L. (2019). The Nature and the Conditions of Human Anatomy and Flourishing: Self-determination theory and basic psychological needs. The Oxford handbook of human motivation, 89-110.
Sahbaz, A. (2020). Views and Evaluations of University Students about Distance Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Educational Process International Journal 9(3), 185-198. DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2020.93.5
Salloum, S. A., & Shaalan, K. (2018). Investigating students’ acceptance of e-Learning system in Higher Educational Environments in the UAE: Applying the Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).
Sangrà, A., Vlachopoulos, D., & Cabrera, N. (2012). Building an inclusive definition of e-learning: An approach to the conceptual framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(2), 145-159.
Schlenz, M. A., Schmidt, A., Wostmann, B., Kramer, N., & Schulz-Weidner, N. (2020). Students’ and lecturers’ perspective on the implementation of online learning in dental education due to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): a cross-sectional study. BMC Medical Education, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02266-3
Sepasgozar, S. M. (2020). Digital Twin andWeb-Based Virtual Gaming Technologies for Online Education: A Case of Construction Management and Engineering. Applied Sciences, 1-32. doi:10.3390/app10134678
Sharif, M., Rahim, S., Tahir, A., Minallah, S., Sheikh, M. W., & Riaz, M. U. (2020). Perception of Dental Students Regarding Online Classes during the Pandemic. Pak Armed Forces Med J, 369-374.
Shukla, V. D. (2020). Impact of online teaching learning process of chemistry during COVID-19: A case study of Government City College in Hyderabad, Telangana. Journal of Xi’an University of Architecture & Technology, 2075-2084.
Sobaih, A. E., Hasanein, A. M., & Abu Elnasr, A. E. (2020). Responses to COVID-19 in Higher Education: Social Media Usage for Sustaining Formal Academic Communication in Developing Countries. Sustainability 12, 1-18. doi:10.3390/su12166520
Susilawati, S., & Supriyatno, T. (2020). Online Learning Through WhatsApp Group in Improving Learning Motivation in the Era and Post Pandemic COVID-19. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian dan Pengembangan, 5(6), 852-859.
Teras, M., Teras, H., Arinto, P., Brunton, J., Daryono, D., & Subramaniam, T. (2020). COVID-19 and the push to online learning: reflections from 5 countries . Digital Culture and Education.
Torrau, S. (2020). Exploring teaching and learning about the Corona crisis in social studies webinars A case study. Journal of Social Science Education 19, 15-29. DOI 10.4119/jsse-3456
Tümen Akyıldız, S. (2020). College Students’ Views on the Pandemic Distance Education: A Focus Group Discussion. International Journal of Technology in Education and Science, 4(4), 322-334.
Wang, D., & East, M. (2020). Constructing an Emergency Chinese Curriculum during the Pandemic: A New Zealand Experience. International Journal of Chinese Language Teaching, 1(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.46451/ijclt.2020.06.01
Wangmo, U., Nesor, M. R., Choki, S., Om, L., Dorji, K., Dema, N., . . . Tshering, N. (2020). Students’ Perception on E-Learning in Punakha Dzongkhag in Bhutan. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 11(2), 18-24. DOI: 10.9734/AJESS/2020/v11i230286
Zakaria, M. I., Mastima, M. S., & Khalid, F. (2019). A Systematic Review of M-Learning in Formal Education. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 1-24.