Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 12. Number2 June 2021                                                   Pp.158-168

Full Paper PDF

A New Approach for Paraphrasing and Rewording a Challenging Text 

Yahya Polat
Translation Studies Department, Faculty of Humanities, Ala-Too International University
Bishkek, 720048 Kyrgyzstan 

Satylmysh Bajak
Turkish Studies Department, Faculty of Humanities, Ala-Too International University
Bishkek, 720048 Kyrgyzstan 

Ainuska Zhumaeva
 Translation Studies Department, Faculty of Humanities, Ala-Too International University
Bishkek, 720048 Kyrgyzstan  

Received: 3/28/2021               Accepted: 5/10/2021               Published: 6/24/2021 


This article aims to propose a practical model for intra-lingual translation or paraphrase in another term. Paraphrase is a restatement of a text, rewording something written or spoken, especially to achieve greater clarity. This approach could help a troubled translator who is having issues translating a complex text into a receptor language by assessing the source text and reconstructing the contents in a simpler semantic structure. (Larson, 2012) Noam Chomsky’s generative–transformational model (1957, 1965) and Larson’s (2012) methodology have been followed to analyze sentences into a series of related levels governed by the help of several other techniques. To achieve this, firstly, the concepts; Intralingual translation, rewording, paraphrasing, and restatement are identified and explained. Secondly, methods of rewording are unpacked, then other elements that play an essential role in paraphrasing are presented. Thirdly, steps of paraphrasing are applied to the text Taj Mahal where skewings between semantic structure and grammatical features are studied and unskewed. Lastly, a conclusion is drawn from the findings to verify the hypothesis of the paraphrase. The findings and results of rewording are also briefly discussed.
Keywords: antonyms, paraphrase, reciprocal words, restatement, skewing, synonyms, substitute words 

Cite as:   Polat, Y. , Bajak, S. & Zhumaeva, S.  (2021). A New Approach for Paraphrasing and Rewording a Challenging Text.
Arab World English Journal, 12 (2) 158-168.


Baker, M. (2011). In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation (2nd ed.). London and New York: Routledge.

Catford, J. C. (1965). A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London: Oxford University Press.

Chalker, S., & Weiner, E. (2014). Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar. Oxford

University Press.

Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. Gravenhage: Mouton.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cruse, D. A. (1997). Lexical Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Creation history of taj mahal. (2019). In Retrieved October 11, 2019,

Danielsson, P. (2007). In other words: Using paraphrases in translation //
[Translating and the Computer 29, November 2007] University of Birmingham.

Haas, S. W. (2000, September 29). A Terminology Crosswalk for LABSTAT:
Mapping General Language Words and Phrases to BLS Terms. Final Report to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Retrieved from School of Information and The Library Science University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Jakobson, R. (2012). On linguistic aspects of translation. In L. Venuti (ed.), (pp.126-131).

Koller, W. (1979). Einführung in die Übersetzungswissenschaft. Heidelberg. Quelle & Meyer.

Komissarov, V. (1977). Zur Theorie der linguistischen Übersetzungsanalyse. In O. Kade

(ed.), Vermittelte Kommunikation, Sprachmittlung, Translation (pp. 44-51). Leipzig Enzyklopädie.

Larson, L. M. (2012). Meaning Based Translation. Boston: University Press of America.

Munday, J. (2008). Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Applications (2nd ed.). London, New York: Routledge.

Murray, J. (1884). Oxford English Dictionary (OED). The Oxford University Press.

Newmark, P. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. New York. Prentice-Hall.

Nida, E. (1964). Toward a Science of Translating. Leiden: Brill.

Nida, E. A., & Taber, C. R. (1982). The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Owczarzak, K., Groves, D. Van Genabith, J., & Way, A. (2006). Contextual Bitext-Derived Paraphrases in Automatic MT Evaluation.
Proceedings of the Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation (pp. 86-93). New York: ACL.

Paraphrase. (2012). In Retrieved May 3, 2021, from

Reiß, K. (1976). Texttyp und Übersetzungsmethode: Der operative Text. Kronberg/Ts. Scriptor.

Skew. (2011). In Retrieved May 26, 2021, from

Substitution. (2021). In Retrieved May 10, 2021, from

Vinay, J.-P., & Darbelnet, J.  (1995). Comparative Stylistics of English and French: A Methodology for Translation. John Benjamins.

Zhou, L. Lin C. Y., Munteanu, D. S., & Hovy, E. (2006). ParaEval: Using Paraphrases to Evaluate Summaries Automatically.
Proceedings from the Human Language

Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the ACL (pp. 447-454). New York: ACL.

Received: 3/28/2021  
Accepted: 5/10/2021  
Published: 6/24/2021 

Dr. Yahya Polat is an associate professor of linguistics and literature at Ala-Too International University in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, where he teaches courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of the courses are; Turkish-Kyrgyz-English translation, History of English and American Literature, Introduction to Translation, and Machine Translation. His research interest includes Kyrgyz, Turkish, and English Syntax and Proverbs, the title of his dissertation. Orcid ID:

Dr. Satylmysh Bajak is an associate professor of Turkish Studies at Ala-Too International University. He teaches courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels; some of the courses are Translation, Syntax, Phonetics, and Etymology. His research interest includes etymology of words, Phonetic changes in Kyrgyz, Mongol, Turkish words, and their translation.

Ainuska Zhumaeva is a senior student at Ala-Too International University, Humanities Faculty, Translation Studies Department. She assists her professors in their academic studies. She is interested in Literary Translation, Computer Assisted Translation and Cultural Translation.