Arab World English Journal ( May 2020)                                      Theses ID 255                               Pp. 1- 255

Full Theses PDF



A Cultural-historical Study on English speech Development of Saudi Students through
Investigating EFL Teaching Strategies in Primary Schools


Walaa Esmail Mandili
 Ministry of Education
Saudi Arabia

Author: Walaa Esmail Mandili
Thesis Title: A Cultural-historical Study on English speech Development of Saudi Students through Investigating EFL Teaching Strategies in Primary Schools
Early Childhood, Education,  Monash University AU.
Major: Education
Degree: Ph.D.
Year of award:
Dr. Nikolai Veresov and Dr. Liang Li
KeyWords: EFL teaching strategies, cultural-historical theory, oral/written speech, zone of proximal development, ideal and present forms, English learning/acquisition, Saudi Arabia, primary schools, communication


This thesis examines the development of students’ English speech through investigating EFL teaching strategies in Saudi primary schools. The EFL teaching strategies implemented by Saudi teachers in English classes were analyzed extensively to find out better ways to support the development of students’ English speech. The research findings offer new insight into teaching EFL from the cultural-historical viewpoint. The study discovers conditions created in English classes to support the development of students’ English speech. It argues that EFL teaching strategies used in primary schools better to be oriented based on cultural-historical theory to support students’ English speech development. Moreover, it declares that the English language acquisition and English speech development are interrelated as the students need to acquire the English language in order to be able to construct correct English words and sentences to be used in meaningful communication.

Cite as:  Mandili,  W. E. (2019).  A Cultural-historical Study on English speech Development of Saudi Students through Investigating EFL Teaching Strategies in Primary Schools. Early Childhood, Education,  Monash University AU. (Ph.D..Thesis). Retrieved from Arab World English Journal (ID Number: 255. May 2020, 1- 255.


Al-Abdulkader, A. A. (1979). A survey of the contribution of higher education to the development of human resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. University of Kansas, Kansas.
Al-Asmari, A. M., & Khan, M. (2014). World Englishes in the EFL Teaching in Saudi Arabia. Arab World English Journal5(1).

Alasmi, M. (2016). The Fourth Grade English as a Second Language Curriculum as perceived by Teachers and Supervisors in Saudi Arabia (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University).

Alipour, A. (2016). Cooperative versus Collaborative Learning. International Journal of Research in Linguistics, Language Teaching and Testing1(4), 153-158.

Al-Johani, H. M. (2009). Finding a way forward: the impact of teachers’ strategies, beliefs and knowledge on teaching English as a foreign language in Saudi Arabia (Doctoral dissertation, University of Strathclyde).

Allison, B. N., & Rehm, M. L. (2011). English language learners: Effective teaching strategies, practices for FCS teachers. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences103(1), 22.

Almalihi, J. F. (2015). Saudi EFL Teachers’ Readiness and Perceptions of Young Learners Teaching at Elementary Schools. English Language Teaching8(2), 86-100.

Almutairi, N. H. (2008). The influence of educational and sociocultural factors on the learning styles and strategies of female students in Saudi Arabia (Doctoral dissertation, University of Leicester). Retrieved from

Al-Nasser, A. S. (2015). Problems of English language acquisition in Saudi Arabia: An
exploratory-cum-remedial study. Theory and Practice in Language Studies5(8), 1612.

Alrashidi, O., & Phan, H. (2015). Education Context and English Teaching and Learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview. English Language Teaching, 8(5), p33.

Al-Seghayer, K. (2011). English teaching in Saudi Arabia: Status, issues, and challenges. Hala.

Al-Seghayer, K. (2014). The four most common constraints affecting English teaching in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of English Linguistics4(5), 17.

Alshahrani, M. (2016) A brief historical perspective of English in Saudi Arabia.Vol.26.

Al-Shumaimeri, Y. A. (2003). A study of Classroom Exposure to oral pedagogic tasks in relation to the motivation and performance of Saudi secondary school learners of English in a context of potential curriculum reform (Doctoral dissertation, University of Leeds)

Anton, D. (1999). The discourse of a learner-centered classroom: Sociocultural perspectives on teacher-learner interaction in the second-language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 83, 3, 303-318.

Arendt, R. (2008). Constructivism and meaning construction. This page intentionally left blank, 127.

Ashraf, T. A. (2018). Teaching English as Foreign Language in Saudi Arabia: Struggles and Strategies. International Journal of English Language Education, 6, 133-154

Asiri, E. (2017). Saudi English Teachers’ Beliefs and Values Towards English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia.

Bartholomew, D. (1993). Effective Strategies for Praising Students: Douglas Bartholomew discusses various purposes that teachers have in mind when they use praise and urges them to match the praise to the purpose. Music Educators Journal80(3),

Barkley, E. F., Major, C. H, Cross, K. P. (2014). Collaborative learning techniques: A   handbook for college faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The qualitative report,13(4), 544-559.

Bernard, H. R., & Bernard, H. R. (2012). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage.

Bock, K. (1995). Chapter 6 – Sentence Production: From Mind to Mouth. In J. L. Miller & P. D. Eimas (Eds.), Speech, Language, and Communication (2nd) (pp. 181-216). San Diego: Academic Press

Boudreault, C. (2010). The benefits of using drama in the ESL/EFL classroom. The Internet TESL Journal16(1), 1-5.

Brėdikytė, M. (2011). The Zones of Proximal Development in Children’s Play. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis E Scientiae Rerum Socialium, 119.

Bruffee, K. A. (1995). Sharing our toys: Cooperative learning versus collaborative learning. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning27(1), 12-18.

Chaiklin, S. (2003). The zone of proximal development in Vygotsky’s analysis of learning and instruction. Vygotsky’s educational theory in cultural context, 1, 39-64.

Choudury, A. (2011). Classroom roles of English language teachers: The traditional and the innovative İngiliz dili öğretmenlerinin sınıfiçi rolleri: Geleneksel ve yenilikçi.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Collecting qualitative data. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Fourth ed. Boston: Pearson, 204-35.

Crystal, D. (2003). English as a Global Language: Cambridge University Press.

Dabarera, C., Renandya, W. A., & Zhang, L. J. (2014). The impact of metacognitive scaffolding and monitoring on reading comprehension. System42, 462-473.

Daniels, H. (2008). Vygotsky and research. London: Routledge.

Daniels, H. (2016). Vygotsky and pedagogy. Routledge.

Davies, P. (1990). The use of drama in English language teaching. TESL Canada Journal8(1), 87-99.

Davydov, V. V. (1995). The influence of LS Vygotsky on education theory, research, and practice. Educational researcher24(3), 12-21.

DeBey, M., & Bombard, D. (2007). Expanding children’s boundaries: An approach to second-language learning and cultural understanding. YC Young Children62(2), 88.

De Vaus, D. A., & De Vaus, D. (2001). Research design in social research. Sage.

Dewey, J. (1938). 1997. Experience and education.

Dewey, M. (2007). English as a lingua franca and globalization: an interconnected perspective. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 17(3), 332-354.

Doff, A. (1990). Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press in Association with the British Council.

Donald, M. (1991). Origins of the Modern Mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Donald, M. (2002). A Mind so Rare: The Evolution of Human Consciousness. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Donato, R. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In J. P. Lantolf, & G. Appel (Eds.), Vygotskian approaches to second language research (pp. 33–56). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Donato, R. (2000). Sociocultural contributions to understanding the foreign and second language classroom. Sociocultural theory and second language learning2750.

Dongyu, Z., Fanyu, B., & Wanyi, D. (2013). Sociocultural Theory Applied to Second Language Learning: Collaborative Learning with Reference to the Chinese Context. International Education Studies6(9), 165-174.

Egorova, N., Shtyrov, Y., & Pulvermüller, F. (2016). Brain basis of communicative actions in language. NeuroImage125, 857-867.

Ellis, R., 1989. Are classroom and naturalistic acquisition the same. A study of the classroom acquisition of German word order rules. Studies in Second Language Acquisition

Ellis, R. (2000). Task-based research and language pedagogy. Language teaching research4(3), 193-220.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Elyas, T., & Badawood, O. (2016). English Language Educational Policy in Saudi Arabia Post 21st Century: Enacted Curriculum, Identity, and Modernisation: A Critical Discourse Analysis Approach. In FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education (Vol. 3, No. 3, p. 3).

Escobedo, C., Guerrero, J., Lujan, G., Ramirez, A., & Serrano, D. (2007). Ethical issues with informed consent. Elizabeth Zubiate8(1), 1-44.

Essien, A. M. (2015). Effectiveness of cooperative learning methodology in improving students’ learning attitudes towards English language. International Journal of Arts & Sciences,8(2), 119.

Eun, B., & Lim, H. S. (2009). A sociocultural view of language learning: The importance of meaning-based instruction. TESL Canada Journal27(1), 12-26.

Fahim, M., & Haghani, M. (2012). Sociocultural perspectives on foreign language learning. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), 693-699.

Fareh, S. (2010). Challenges of teaching English in the Arab world: Why can’t EFL programs deliver as expected?. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences2(2), 3600-3604.

Farmer, D. (2015, May 13). Drama for Language Learning. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from

Faruk, S. (2013). English language teaching in Saudi Arabia: A world system perspective. Scientific Bulletin of the Politehnica University of Timişoara Transactions on Modern Languages12(2-2), 73-80.

Felder, R. M., & Henriques, E. R. (1995). Learning and teaching styles in foreign and second language education. Foreign language annals28(1), 21-31.

Finney, D. (2002). The ELT curriculum: A flexible model for a changing world. Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice, 69-79.

Fleer, M. (2008). Using digital video observations and computer technologies in a cultural-historical approach. In M. Hedegaard & M. Fleer (eds) Studying children: a cultural-historical approach. New York: McGraw Hill: Open University Press.

Gaukrodger, B., & Atkins, C. (2013). Second Life calling: language learners communicating virtually across the world. Paper presented at the 30th ascilite Conference, 1-4 December, Macquarie University, Sydney.

Georgii, G. (2010). Dialogue and participation: A study on communication in the classroom.

Gernsbacher, M. A. (2004). Language is more than speech: a case study. The journal of developmental and learning disorders, 8, 79.

Gillham, B. (2000). Case study research methods. Bloomsbury Publishing.

[66] Gray, D. E. (2013). Doing research in the real world. Sage.

Grimshaw, T. (2009). Dustin Hosseini SLA Unit Assignment The ZPD, scaffolding, and ʻthe effort to comprehendʼ: three concepts that language teachers should consider in facilitating the second language acquisition of learners.

Harmer, J. (1991). The practice of English language teaching. London, New York Longman.

Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching. England, Pearson Education.

Harvard, G., 1997. The key ideas of Vygotsky and their implications for teaching and schooling. In R. Fox., ed. Perspectives on constructivism, Perspectives series No. 56, 38-56. (University of Exeter, School of Education).

Hedegaard, M. (2005). The zone of proximal development as basis for instruction. In H. Daniels (Ed.), An Introduction to Vygotsky, (pp. 223-247). East Sussex,

Hedegaard, M. (2008a). Developing a dialectic approach to researching children’s development. In M. Hedegaard & M. Fleer (eds) Studying children: a cultural-historical approach. New York: McGraw Hill: Open University Press.

Hedegaard, M. (2008b). Principles for interpreting research protocols. In M. Hedegaard & M. Fleer (eds) Studying Children. A Cultural-Historical Approach, (pp.46-64). New York: McGaw Hill Open University Press.

Hedegaard, M. (2008c). The educational experiment. In M. Hedegaard & M. Fleer (eds) Studying Children. A Cultural-Historical Approach, (pp. 181-201). New York: McGaw Hill Open University Press.

Hedegaard, M. (2008d). The role of the researcher. In M. Hedegaard & M. Fleer (eds) Studying Children. A Cultural-Historical Approach, (pp. 202-207). New York: McGaw Hill Open University Press.

Hedegaard, M. (2008e). A cultural-historical theory of children’s development. In M. Hedegaard & M. Fleer (eds) Studying Children. A Cultural-Historical Approach, (pp.10-29). New York: McGaw Hill Open University Press.

Hedegaard, M. (2009). Children’s development from a cultural–historical approach: Children’s activity in everyday local settings as foundation for their development. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 16(1), 64-82.

Hedegaard, M. (2012). A cultural-historical theory of children’s development. In Extending professional practice in the early years. Sage Publications, Incorporated.

Hedegaard, M., & Fleer, M. (2008). Studying Children: a cultural-historical approach.

Hoff, E. (2006). How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 26(1), 55-88.

Houston, C. R. (1996). A study of video usage as a reflection of active learning strategies by the faculty of the University of Kentucky Community College System (Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale).

Hviid, P. (2008). Interviewing using a cultural-historical approach. In M. Hedegaard & M. Fleer (Ed) Studying children: a cultural-historical approach, (pp.139-156) New York: McGraw Hill: Open University Press.

Ilyenkov, E. (1977). The concept of the ideal. Philosophy in the USSR: Problems of dialectical materialism, 71-99.

Ismail, N. S., Zaid, S. B., Mohamed, M. H., & Mohd Rouyan, N. (2017). Vocabulary Teaching and Learning Principles in Classroom Practices.

Istifci, I., & Kaya, Z. (2011). Collaborative Learning in Teaching a Second Language through the Internet. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education11(3), 88-96.

Jang, E. Y., & Jiménez, R. T. (2011). A sociocultural perspective on second language learner strategies: Focus on the impact of social context. Theory into Practice50(2), 141-148.

Javid, C. Z., Farooq, U., & Gulzar, M. A. (2012). Saudi English-major undergraduates and English Teachers’ perceptions regarding effective ELT in the KSA: A Comparative Study. European Journal of Scientific Research85(1), 55-70.

Johnson, F., Delarche, M., Marshall, N., Wurr, A., & Edwards, J. (1998). Changing Teacher Roles in the Foreign Language Classroom. Texas papers in foreign language education3(2), 71-89.

Jones, P. E. (2008). Language in cultural-historical perspective. The transformation of
  learning: Advance in cultural-historical activity theory, 76-99.

Kao, P.L. (2010). Examining second language learning: Taking a sociocultural stance. ARECLS, 7, 113-131.

Katayama, K. (2013). Sociocultural investigation of students’ use of English in the Japanese language classroom during collaborative group work (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Australia).

Kazuo, N. (2003). On the Concept of “Cultural Age” in LS Vygotsky’s Cultural-historical Theory. 1-6.

Keyser, M. W. (2000). Active learning and cooperative learning: understanding the difference and using both styles effectively. Research strategies17(1), 35-44.

Knop, C. K. (2000). Directions for Change in an Audio-Lingual Approach. Mosaic: A Journal for Language Teachers7(2), 18-27.

Kohnen, V. (1992). Experiential language learning: second language learning as cooperative learner education. In: D. Nunan, ed., Collaborative Language Learning and Teaching, 1st ed. Cambridge university press, pp.14-39.

Konishi, C. (2007). Learning English as a second language: A case study of a Chinese girl in an American preschool. Childhood Education83(5), 267-272.

Kozulin, A. (Ed.). (2003). Vygotsky’s educational theory in cultural context. Cambridge University Press.

Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. New York.

Kudriavtsev, V. T. (1999). Psychology of the developmen of a man: basics of the cultural hystorical approach, part I [Psihologia razvitia cheloveka: osnovanija kul’turno istorich eskogo podhoda.].

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). TESOL methods: Changing tracks, challenging trends. Tesol Quarterly40(1), 59-81.

Kvale, S. & Brinkmann, S. (2009). Interviews. Learning the Craft of Qualitative Researcch Interviewing. (2nd Ed.). Thousand Okas, CA: Sage.

Lantolf, J. P. and G. Appel (1994). Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research, Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Lantolf, J. P., Thorne, S. L., & Poehner, M. E. (2015). Sociocultural theory and second language development. Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction, 207-226.

Lee, G. V., & Barnett, B. G. (1994). Using Reflective Questioning to Promote Collaborative Dialogue. Journal of Staff Development, 15(1), 16-21.

Levykh, M. G. (2008). The affective establishment and maintenance of Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. Educational Theory, 58(1), 83-101.

Li, L. (2012). Family Involvement in Preschoolers’ Bilingual Heritage Language Development: A Cultural-historical Study of Chinese-Australian Families’ Everyday Practices (Doctoral dissertation, Monash University).

Liddicoat, A. J. (2008). Pedagogical practice for integrating the intercultural in language teaching and learning. Japanese Studies28(3), 277-290.

Lin, A. M. (1999). Doing‐English‐lessons in the reproduction or transformation of social worlds?. Tesol Quarterly33(3), 393-412.

Liton, H. A. (2012). Developing EFL Teaching and Learning Practices in Saudi Colleges: A Review. Online Submission5(2), 129-152.

Mahboob, A., & Elyas, T. (2014). English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. World Englishes, 33(1), 128-142.

Malone, D. (2012). Theories and research of second language acquisition. SIL International MLE WS,(Bangkok, 2012).

Millington, N. T. (2011). Using songs effectively to teach English to young learners. Language Education in Asia2(1), 134-141.

Minick, N. (1996). The development of Vygotsky’s thought. An introduction to Vygotsky, 28-52.

Ministry of education. (2018). Moegovsa. Retrieved 6 March, 2018, from

Mitchell, H. and Malkogianni, M. (2017). Smart class 1. mm, pp.1-114.

Mitchell R. and Myles, F., 2004. Second language learning theories., 2nd ed. London: Arnold.

Moll, L. C. (1990). Community Knowledge and Classroom Practice: Combining Resources for Literacy Instruction. Technical Report.

Momani, M., Asiri, M. A., & Alatawi, S. M. (2016). The impact of implementing active learning strategies in teaching English from the perspective of Tabuk educational region intermediate school teachers. Asian Journal of Educational Research Vol4(1).

Murphey, T. (1992). The discourse of pop songs. TESOL quarterly26(4), 770-774.

Nakamura, K. (2003). On the concept of “cultural age” in L.S. Vygotsky’s cultural-historical theory. The Report of Tokyo University of Fisheries, 3, 1-6.

Nelson, A. (2007). Teacher training course. Dehli: Global

Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D. (1988). The learner-centred curriculum: A study in second language teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D. (Ed.). (1992). Collaborative language learning and teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

O’Connor, H., & Gibson, N. (2003). A step-by-step guide to qualitative data analysis. Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Indigenous and Aboriginal Community Health1(1), 63-90.

Ohta, A. S. (1995). Applying Sociocultural Theory to an Analysis of Learner Discourse: Learner-Learner Collaborative Interaction in the Zone of Proximal Development. Issues in applied linguistics6(2), 93-121.

Opdenakker, R. (2006, September). Advantages and disadvantages of four interview techniques in qualitative research. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 7, No. 4).

Orb, A., Eisenhauer, L., & Wynaden, D. (2001). Ethics in qualitative research. Journal of nursing scholarship33(1), 93-96

Oxford, R.L. (1990) Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Oxford, R. L. (1997). Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and interaction: Three communicative strands in the language classroom. The Modern Language Journal81(4), 443-456.

Pennycook, A. (2014). The cultural politics of English as an international language: Routledge.

Rahman, M. M. (2011). English language teaching in Saudi Arabia: A case study of learners’ needs analysis with special reference to Community College, Najran University. Language in India, 367-461

Rahman, M.&Alhaisoni, E. (2013). Teaching English in Saudi Arabia: Prospects and challenges. Academic Research International Journal, 4 (1), 112-118.

Rajasekar, S., Philominathan, P., & Chinnathambi, V. (2006). Research methodology. arXiv preprint physics/0601009.

Ramirez, G. M. (2012). Usage of Multimedia Visual Aids in the English Language Classroom: A Case Study at Margarita Salas Secondary School (Majadahonda). Unpublished Masters Dissertation). Matritensis University, Spain.

Ridgway, A. F. (2010). Using a Cultural-historical Framework to Show Societal, Institutional and Personal Influences on Learning: A Case Study of an Australian Early Childhood Community (Doctoral dissertation, Monash University).

Rieg, S. A., & Paquette, K. R. (2009). Using drama and movement to enhance English language learners’ literacy development. Journal of Instructional Psychology36(2), 148-155.

Renandya, W. A. (2012). Teacher roles in EIL. The European journal of applied Linguistics and TEFL1(2), 65-80.

Safonova, V. V. (2018). Creative Writing as Part and Parcel of Developing Communicative & Intellectual FL Learners’ Powers. European Journal of Social Science Education and Research5(1), 130-141.

Saha, S. K., & Singh, S. (2016). Collaborative Learning through Language Games in ESL Classroom. Language in India16(10), 180-189.

Saricoban, A., & Metin, E. (2000). Songs, verse and games for teaching grammar. The Internet TESL Journal6(10), 1-7.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A., & Wilson, J. (2009). Business research methods. Financial Times, Prentice Hall: London.

Scarcella, R. C., & Oxford, R. L. (1992). The tapestry of language learning: The individual in the communicative classroom (p. 63). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Scarino, A., & Liddicoat, A. (2009). Teaching and learning languages: A guide. Melbourne: Curriculum Corporation.

Schensul, J. (2011). Methodology, Methods and Tools in Qualitative Research. In Lapan, S. D., Quartaroli, M. T., & Riemer, F. J. (2011). Qualitative research: An introduction to methods and designs (Vol. 37): John Wiley & Sons.

Scrivener, J. (1994). Learning Teaching: A Guidebook for ELT. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Shah, S. R., Hussain, M. A., & Nasseef, O. A. (2013). Factors Impacting EFL Teaching: An Exploratory Study in the Saudi Arabian Context. Arab World English Journal4(3).

Sharifian, F. (2009). English as an international language: Perspectives and pedagogical issues (Vol. 11): Multilingual Matters.

Simeon, J. (2015). Scaffolding learner writing strategies in an ESL secondary class in the seychelles: A sociocultural perspective. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics21, 21.

Sinhaneti, K., & Kyaw, E. K. (2012). A Study of the Role of Rote Learning in Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Burmese Students. Online Submission.

Storch, N. (2002). Patterns of interaction in ESL pair work. Language Learning, 52(1), 119–158.

Storch, N. (2005). Collaborative writing: Product, process, and students’ reflections. Journal of second language writing, 14(3), 153-173.

Swanto, S., & Din, W. A. (2014). Employing drilling technique in teaching English writing skills to a group of rural Malaysian students. Developing Country Studies4(14), 73-82.

Tarone, E. (2007). Sociolinguistic approaches to second language acquisition research—1997–2007. The modern language journal91(s1), 837-848.

Thompson, N. (2012). Language teaching strategies and techniques used to support students learning in a language other than their mother tounge. Excecutive Summary, 1-16.

Toomela, A. (2010). Modern mainstream psychology is the best? Noncumulative, historically blind, fragmented, atheoretical. In A. Toomela & J. Valsiner (Eds.), Methodological thinking in psychology: 60 years gone astray? (pp. 1–38). Charlotte: IAP.

Tudor, I. (1993). Teacher roles in the learner-centred classroom. ELT journal47(1), 22-31.

Turuk, M. C. (2008). The relevance and implications of Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory in the second language classroom. ARECLS, 5, 244-262.

Unisaeduau. (2016). Unisaeduau. Retrieved 15 February 2016, from

Van der Veer, R. (2008). Exploring Vygotsky’s legacy: The meaning of mediation. UK: Psychology Press.

Veresov, N. (2004). Zone of proximal development (ZPD): the hidden dimension? development, 42-48.

Veresov, N. (2010). Introducing cultural historical theory: main concepts and principles of genetic research methodology. Cultural-Historical Psychology [P], 4, 83-90.

Veresov, N. (2014). Refocusing the Lens on Development: Towards Genetic Research Methodology. In M. Fleer & A. Ridgway (Eds.), Visual Methodologies and Digital Tools for Researching with Young Children (Vol. 10, pp. 129-149): Springer International Publishing.

Veresov, N. (2016). Duality of categories or dialectical concepts? Integrative psychological and behavioral science50(2), 244-256.

Verenikina, I. (2008). Scaffolding and learning: Its role in nurturing new learners

Vettorel, P. (2014). English as a Lingua Franca in Wider Networking, Blogging Practices.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). The Collected Works of L.S. Vygotsky: Volume: 1. Problems of General Psychology, Including the Volume Thinking and Speech, (R. W. Rieber & A. S. Carton Eds.). New York: Plenum.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1993). The collected works of LS Vygotsky. Volume 2: The fundamentals of defectology (abnormal psychology and learning disabilities) (RW Rieber & AS Carton, Eds.; JE Knox & CB Stevens, Trans.).

Vygotsky, L. S. (1994). The problem of the environment. In R. van der Veer and J. Valsiner (Eds.), The Vygotsky reader. (pp. 338-350), Oxford: Blackwell.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1997). The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky, Volume: 4. The History of the Development of higher Mental Functions, (M. J. Hall, Trans.; R. W. Rieber Ed.). NewYork: Plenum Press.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1998). The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky, Volume: 5. Child Psychology (M. J. Hall, Trans.; R. W. Rieber Ed.). NewYork: Plenum Press

Vygotsky, L. S. (2011). The dynamics of the schoolchild’s mental development in relation to teaching and learning. Journal of cognitive education and psychology10(2), 198.

Wang, Y., Ao, S.-I., Amouzegar, M. A., & Chen, S.-S. (2008). Collaborate to Learn: A case study of technology-enhanced, collaborative language learning. Paper presented at the AIP conference proceedings.

Watanabe, Y. (2008). Peer-peer interaction between L2 learners of different proficiency levels: Their interactions and reflections. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 64(4), 605-635.

Walqui, A. (2006). Scaffolding instruction for English language learners: A conceptual framework. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9(2), 159-180

Watson, J. R. (2007). Applying sociocultural theory to a language classroom environment with second-year students of college Russian. Bryn Mawr College.

Wee, B., DePierre, A., Anthamatten, P., & Barbour, J. (2013). Visual methodology as a pedagogical research tool in geography education. Journal of Geography in Higher Education37(2), 164-173.

Weimer, M. (2002). Learner-centered teaching: Five key changes to practice. John Wiley & Sons.

Wells, G. (1999). Dialogic inquiry: Towards a socio-cultural practice and theory of education. Cambridge University Press.

Wenden, A. and Rubin, J. (1987). Learner Strategies in Language Learning. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Wertsch, J. V. (1985). Vygotsky and the social formation of mind. Harvard University Press.

Wertsch, J. V., & Tulviste, P. (1992). LS Vygotsky and contemporary developmental psychology. Developmental psychology, 28(4), 548.

Wink, J., & Putney, L. A. G. (2002). A Vision of Vygotsky: Allyn and Bacon.

Wright, T. (1987). Roles for teachers and learners. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wright, A., Betteridge, D., & Buckby, M. (2006). Games for language learning. Ernst Klett Sprachen.

Xing, Q. (2010). An investigation of the relationship between the teaching beliefs and teaching behaviors of teachers of English as a second or foreign language: UMI.

Yang, J. S., & Kim, T. Y. (2011). Sociocultural analysis of second language learner beliefs: A qualitative case study of two study-abroad ESL learners. System39(3), 325-334.

Yin, R. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. Beverly Hills.


Walaa Esmail Mandili
 Ministry of Education
Saudi Arabia